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Full text of "FM 7-35 Infantry Regiment and Antitank Platoon, Infantry Battalion"

WAR DEPARTMENT - FIELD MANUAL 



INFANTRY 

ANTITANK COMPANY, INFANTRY 

REGIMENT AND ANTITANK 
PLATOON, INFANTRY BATTALION 




WAR DEPARTMENT • (5 MARCH 1944 




HANNON, RTfl 



FM 7-35 
C l 

WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL 

INFANTRY ANTITANK COMPANY, INFANTRY REGI- 
MENT AND ANTITANK PLATOON, INFANTRY 
BATTALION 

Changes | • WAR DEPARTMENT, 

No. 1 ] Washington 25, D. C, 13 November 1944. 

FM 7-35, 15 March 1944, is changed as follows: 
2. ARMAMENT. 

# » # » » 

b. Crew-served weapons. 

# * # * * 

(2) ANTITANK ROCKET LAUNCHERS. 

# # * * * 

(a) Launchers are issued on the basis of one 
per gun squad in the antitank squad, and one to the 
platoon headquarters in the antitank mine platoon. They 
are normally * * * (See app. I.) 



13. WARNING SYSTEM. 

* * # * w 

d. Warning signals. To give warning of the approach 
or presence of hostile aircraft or armored vehicles, the 
following standard warning signal is prescribed: three long 
blasts of a whistle, vehicular .horn, siren, or klaxon, re- 
peated several times; or three equally spaced shots with 
a rifle, carbine, or pistol; or three short bursts of fire from 
an automatic weapon. In daylight, the * * * may 
lie employed. 

KiOUD 610404° — 44 



WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD ^MANUAL 

14. ACTION IN CASE OF AIR ATTACK. (Superseded.) 
a. Regardless of the effectiveness of the security measures 
taken by higher command through the offensive action of 
combat aviation, all units must consider the probability of 
air attack and reconnaissance and employ appropriate 
security measures. Passive measures include dispersion, 
concealment, and camouflage. Active measures comprise 
firing at enemy airplanes. 

b. (1) Upon receiving warning of air attack, person- 
nel of the antitank company in- position, bivouac or billets 
seek the nearest concealment or cover and rertiain motion- 
less;, except gun crews who are engaged in a fire fight with 
hostile taqks. Such crews continue to combat the tanks. 

(2) When on the march, foot troops deploy and- seek 
cover. When ihe situation indicates the necessity for 
continued movement, and the time of warning permits, 
foot troops deploy off the road and continue. the march. 
Motorized troops continue the march. The company 
must be prepared to accept some casualties rather than 
arrive late at the destination. 

c. Crews of caliber .50 machine guns and individuals 
armed with rifles should be constantly prepared to fire on 
low-flying aircraft upon command or prearranged signal 
of the company commander or responsible unit leader. 
No aircraft will be fired upon unless it has been clearly 
recognized as hostile, or is positively identified as hostile, 
or attacks with bombs or gunfire. 

21. CLASS V SUPPLY. 

* * * ■ • • 



2 



AGO 71 D 



IHFANTHY 



■(2)- Initial supply of' * . * * carried as follows: 
For — ■ Carried on — 

Antitank guns_ Prime movers and company am- 
munition vehicle. 

# # ■ * * ■ #. 

b. Replenishment. 

. * .*.* * 

(2) GENERAL PLAN OF REPLENISHMENT, (a) 
Ammunition for the antitank guns and other weapons 
is ordinarily delivered to the company ammunition supply 
point by the company ammunition vehicle and/or 
by vehicles of the regimental train. The company 
distributes * ■ * , * . ( See fig. 4. ) 

# # * * # 

(5) ANTITANK PLATOON, [a) Replenishment in 
attach. 

1, Because of the * * * the ammunition sup- 
ply. If replenishment in larger quantities 
becomes necessary, the company ammu- 
nition vehicle should be used and/or 
arrangements made for use of additional 

vehicles from the regimental train. 

# * * * * 

83. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. The company commander 
* * * becomes seriously depleted. Upon occupation 
of the position, the company ammunition vehicle 
and regimental train vehicles are unloaded in covered and 
concealed locations as close as' practicable to localities 
where their loads are to be used. As soon as the vehicles 



,VGO 710 



WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANTJAL 

are unloaded, they are withdrawn to the rear, at whieh 
time the company ammunition vehicle and regi- 
mental train vehicles revert to company and regimental 
control respectively. If the company commander 
anticipates the early need of additional ammu- 
nition and the terrain permits, the company 
ammunition vehicle, after being reloaded with 
ammunition, may be retained at the company 
ammunition supply point; otherwise, it should 
revert to regimental control in the train bivouac. 
Replenishment of * * * see paragraph 21. 

88. NIGHT WITHDRAWAL. 

***** 

d. (1) If considerable amounts * * * or assembly 
area. The company ammunition vehicle may 
also be used for removal of ammunition. 

Provisions should be * * * cannot be removed. 
***** 

151. ANTITANK MINES. An antitank mine * * * 
of a tripwire. For a description of antitank mines, in- 
cluding assembly, disassembly, care in handling, burying 
and camouflaging and packing and marking, see FM 
5-31. 

152. OTHER MATERIEL EMPLOYED AS ANTITANK 

MINES. 

***** 

b. Bangalore Torpedo. For use of the Bangalore 
torpedo as an antitank mine, see FM 5—31. 



4 



AGO T1D 



INFANTRY 



155. DELIBERATE MINE FIELDS. A deliberate mine 

* * * tjjig type of operation. For deliberate mine 
field patterns, organization for laying, duties of personnel 
and operation of antitank mine details, camouflage and 
removal of deliberate mine fields, see FM 5—31. 

156. HASTY MINE FIELDS. A hasty mine * * * 
(see app. III). For the hasty mine field pattern, drills 
for laying the pattern, organization of an antitank mine 
detail, and duties and methods of operation of the lay-out 
party, surveying party, and laying party or parties, see 
FM 5-31. 

158. ROAD BLOCKS, o. General. A road block 

* * * around the block. In a mined road block, 
mines alone may be quickly placed across a road and 
sufficiently beyond to block the movement of enemy ve- 
hicles, or the road itself may be blocked by other obstacles, 
while the mines are used on one or both flanks to prevent 
vehicles from detouring around the road block. (See 
FM 5-31.) 

159. BARRIERS. A barrier is defined as a large system of 
bands and zones of obstacles. {See FM 5-31.) Barriers 
are especially * * * hostile armored vehicles. 

175. SUPPLY, a. The battalion commander * * * 
the platoon sergeant * * * the ammunition and 
pioneer platoon of the battalion headquarters company 
may assist in ammunition supply. (See FM 7-30.) 
* # # * * 



AGO T1D 



5 



WAR DKFAKTMENT FIELD MANUAL 

178. MISSIONS, a. Primary Mission. The '.primary 

mission * * * its own battalion. 

.* . * .. . ' # . * .■ ' # 

183. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. 

***** 

c. (1) In an attack, because of the limited mobility 
of the antitank gun when moved by hand, the prime movo; 
should normally remain under cover near the gun position. 
The platoon headquarters * * * the ammunition' 
supply. If replenishment in * * * regimental train. 
The prescribed ammunition loads of prime movers 
should be maintained as continupu.sly as possible. In a . 
rapid forward * * * from- higher headquarters. 

(3) The hand carry of ammunition from the location ■ 
of the prime mover is controlled, by . squad leaders, under 
the general supervision of the platoon leader and platoon, 
sergeant. 

Subparagraphs e and f are relettered d and e. 

199. ATTACK IN WOODS. 

. . * . * # * * 

c. During the advance * * * of the woods. In 
fairly open * * * front and flanks. .When a platoon-, 
of the antitank company is attached flank guns may be 
reinforced with guns from this platoon. ' Where -the , 
woods . * * * will be necessary. 

# * * * # 



6 



AGO 71D 



INFANTRY 



APPENDIX III 
GENERAL TRAINING 

3. MINES AND BOOBY TRAPS. As members of 
* * *. (See d (1) below.) For methods and princi- 
ples of training in. the , employment of mines and booby 
traps see FM 5-31, TM 5-325, and TM 11-1122. 

c. Antitank mine platoons.- The antitank mine pla- 
toon will be trained in methods of laying, marking, and 
registering mine fields (see fig. 23 ) ,* recognition of all types 
of mines and booby traps used by friendly and enemy 
troops; technique, of disarming, lifting, and destroying 
activated antitank and antipersonnel mines and booby 
traps of all types used by friendly and enemy troops; 
gapping extensive mine fields. 

TAG 300.7 (26 Oct 44).] 



AGO Tit) 



7 



WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL 



By order of the Secretary of War : 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official : 
' J. A. ULIO, 

Major General. 

The Adjutant General. 

Distribution : 

As prescribed in paragraph 9a, FM 21-6 except 
Inf Sch (9000) ; T of Opns (2) ; Island C (2) ; 
Base G (2) ; Def C (2), Sectors {2), Sub-sectors 
(2); Base Sectors (2); HD (2); Depts (2); 
SvC (oversea) (2) ; Armies (oversea) (2) ; Corps 
(oversea) (2); D (oversea) (2); B 7 (2) ; R 7 
(2); Bn 7 (6) ; IC 7 (15). 

IG 7: T/O & E 7-19. 

For explanation of symbols, see FM 21-6. 



o AGO TID 

BOVEBHBEHT PRlHTIHd OFFICE i It** 



CHANNON, K. f/ 



WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL 
F M 7 - 3 S 

This manual supersedes FM 7-35, Antitank Cvmpany, Rifh> Regiment, 23 
May 1941, including Changes No. 1, 31 December 1941, and Training Circular 
No. 3$, War Departmext, 1942, 



INFANTRY 



ANTITANK COMPANY, INFANTRY 



REGIMENT AND ANTITANK 



PLATOON, INFANTRY BATTALION 




WAR DEPARTMENT • 15 MARCH 19 4 4 



BM^BBED DISSEMINATION- OF RESTRICTED MATTER. 
Tne information contained in restricted documents and the essentia] char- 
acteristics of restricted material may he given to any person known to be 
in the service of the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty 
and discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be 
communicated to the public or to the press except by authorized military 
public relations agencies. (See also par. 18*, AR 380-5, 28 Sep 1942.) 



Untied States Government Printing Office 
Washington; 1944 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington 25, D. C, 15 March 1944. 



FM 7-35, Infantry Field Manual, Antitank Company, 
Infantry Regiment and Antitank Platoon, Infantry Bat- 
talion, is published for the information and guidance 
of all concerned. 

[A. G. 300.7 (21 Jan 44).] 

By orivf.r' of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 

J. A. ULIO, 

Major- General, 

The Adjutant General. 

Distribution: 

R and H 7 (a) ; Bn 7 (6) ; IC 7 (15) . 

(For explanation of symbols see FM 21-6) . 



CONTENTS 



PART ONE 

ANTITANK COMPANY, 
INFANTRY REGIMENT 

Paragraphs Page 



CHAPTER 1. GENERAL. 

Section I. Composition 1-4 1 

II. Tactical employment 5-7 12 

III. Combat duties of company commander 8—1 a lg 

IV. Protective measures 13- 16 aj> 

CHAPTER 2. MEDICAL SERVICE AND 

EVACUATION 17-19 29 

CHAPTER 3. SUPPLY AND MOTOR 
MAINTENANCE. 

Section I. Supply 20-23 3 1 

II. Motor maintenance 24 40 

CHAPTER 4. MARCHES AND BIVOUACS. 

Section I. Marches 25-31 41 

11. Bivouacs 32-33 5* 

CHAPTER 5. OFFENSIVE COMBAT. 

Section 1. General .' . 34-36 54 

//. Approach march 37—41 55 

III. Assembly areas 42-43 Oo 

IV. Reconnaissance prior to attack, plans, 

and orders 44-47 62 

V. Employment in attack 48-61 67 

VI. Special operations 62-69 78 



Paragraphs Page 

CHAPTER 6. DEFENSIVE COMBAT. 

Section I. General 711-78 91 

II. Employment in defense . 73 — 85 93 

III. Retrograde movements 86-105 ,0 5 

IV. Special operations 9 '-96 ill 

CHAPTER 7. ANTITANK PLATOON. 

Section I. General 97—104 119 

II. Approach march 105-108 130 

III. Employment in attack 100-iso 136 

IV. Employment in defense isi— 132 148 

V. Retrograde movements 133-135 157 

CHAPTER B. ANTITANK SQUAD. 

Section I. General 136-138 160 

II, Tactical employment 139-148 163 

CHAPTER 9. ANTITANK MINE PLATOON. 

Section I. General 149-150 172 

//. Antitank mine equipment and supply 151-154 174 

Mine fields and road blocks 155-168 176 

IV. Tactical employment 163-178 185 

PART TWO 

ANTITANK PLATOON, 
INFANTRY BATTALION 

Far if y raplls i J d ftc 

CHAPTER 1. GENERAL. 

Section I. Composition ..■ 173-174 195 

II. Supply, medical service and evacua- 
tion 175-176 196 

HI. Tactical employment 177—183 197 

7 V. Marches and bivouacs... 1 84-185 802 



Paragraphs Page 

CHAPTER 2. OFFENSIVE COMBAT. 

Section I. Approach march and assembly area. . . 186-188 206 

II. Employment in attack 189-198 sio 

III, Special operations ,., 199-206 217 

CHAPTER 3. DEFENSIVE COMBAT. 

Section I, Employment in defense 907-816 223 

II. Retrograde movements 217-219 227 



APPENDIX I. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION AND EMPLACE- 
MENTS FOR ANTITANK WEAPONS 231 



II. STREAM CROSSING EXPEDIENTS FOR 

ANTITANK GUNS AND VEHICLES 249 



III. GENERAL TRAINING s6s 

IV. DIRECTIVES FOR TACTICAL TRAINING OF 
ANTITANK COMPANY. INFANTRY REGI- 
MENT. 869 



INDEX 



«99 



This manual supersedes FM 7—35, Antitank Company, Rifle Regiment, 23 
May 1941, including Changes No. 1, 31 December 1941, and Training Circular 
No. JH, IV ar Department, 1942. 



Note. Attention is directed to FM 21-7 fur details as to haw appropriate 
Training Films mid Film Strips are intended ta be used and how they are made 
available for use during training. 



PART ONE 

ANTITANK COMPANY 
INFANTRY REGIMENT 



CHAPTER i 
GENERAL 



SEC IT ON I 
COMPOSITION 

1. ORGANIZATION, a. General. The antitank com- 
pany consists of a company headquarters, three antitank 
platoons, and. one antitank mine platoon (see fig. i) . 

b. Company Headquarters. The company head- 
quarters personnel are divided according to the nature 
of their duties into the command group and the ad- 
ministration group. 

(i) COMMAND GROUP. This group consists of the 



ANTITANK COMPANY 
INFANTRY REGIMENT 



CO 


1 AT 




AT 




AT 




AT MINE 


HQ 


j PLAT 




PLAT 




PLAT 




PLAT 



PLAT 
HQ 



1 I 1 

^ 13 ^ £3 KI 

+57 is? 



PLAT 

-O-O-O- -O-O-O- -O-O-O- 

rigure r. Composition of the antitank company. 



company commander, second-in-command, reconnais- 
sance officer, first sergeant, communication sergeant, re- 
connaissance sergeant, bugler, radio operators, mes~ 
sengers, and basic privates. The company commander 
employs the command group primarily to assist him in 
making the necessary preparations for employing the 
company in combat and in controlling it during combat. 
Duties of individuals are as follows: 

(a) Company commander. The company commander 
is responsible for the training, discipline, control, tactical 
employment, supply, and administration of the com- 
pany. For details of his duties during combat, see section 
III of this chapter. For a description of his duties in 
training, see appendixes III and IV. 

(&) Second-in-command. The second-in-command op- 
erates in and from the company command post to assist 
the company commander. He is frequently charged by 
the latter with the specific duty of assisting in the de- 
livery of ammunition, rations, water, and gasoline. He 
must keep abreast of the situation, and be prepared to 
assume command of the company immediately if the 
company commander becomes a casualty. He may be 



3 



used by the company commander as his representative 
at the regimental command post. 

(c) Reconnaissance officer. The reconnaissance officer 
assists the company commander in conducting the re- 
connaissance. He also assists, when necessary, in directing 
or guiding platoons to areas or positions designated by 
the company commander. For a discussion of his duties 
in reconnaissance, see paragraph 10. 

(d) First sergeant. The first sergeant, under the super- 
vision of the company commander, establishes and op- 
erates the company command post. He assists the com- 
pany commander in maintaining contact with the regi- 
mental command post, antitank platoons, antitank mine 
platoon, administration group, and company transport. 
When the communication sergeant is performing duties 
away from the company command post, the first sergeant 
may be required to operate or supervise the operation 
of the company message center (see also (e) below) . 

(e) Communication sergeant. The communication 
sergeant is the principal assistant of the company com- 
mander in maintaining communication. He is respon- 
sible for the establishment and operation of the unit 
message^ center at the company command post, and for 
the installation, operation, and maintenance of com- 
munication equipment throughout the company. He 
may frequently be required to accompany the company 
commander at the observation post, or in his move- 
ments throughout the company area. During such ab- 
sence from the command post, the company message 
center may operate under the supervision of the first 
sergeant, or may be maintained by other available per- 
sonnel as directed by the communication sergeant, in 
the first sergeant's absence. The communication sergeant 
is responsible for the training of appropriate company 
personnel in the installation, operation, and mainte- 
nance of communication equipment issued to the com- 
pany. (See app. III.) 



3 



(/) Reconnaissance sergeant. The reconnaissance ser- 
geant performs such reconnaissance as may be assigned 
to him by the company commander or reconnaissance 
officer. He may assist in the establishment of the observa- 
tion post, and may also act as a guide. 

(g) Bugler. The bugler is trained to act as a signal- 
man, guide, observer, and messenger. He drives the com- 
pany headquarters radio truck (34-ton weapon carrier, 
equipped with radio) , and is responsible for driver 
maintenance. 

(h) Radio operators. The radio operators are trained 
to operate the radio set issued to the company for com- 
munication in warning nets or with higher headquarters, 
in conformity with the current plan of signal communi- 
cation. They aid in the training of odicr company per- 
sonnel in the operation of the radiotelephone used in 
the company command net. They may receive their 
training in code practice, and in the installation, opera- 
tion, and maintenance of radio sets, with the regimental 
communication platoon. 

(i) Messengers. Messengers when not engaged in 
carrying messages, may be used as guides, and as assist- 
ants to other personnel at the company command post. 
They are trained in the operation and maintenance of 
the company communication equipment. They drive 
the 14 -ton trucks assigned to company headquarters and 
are responsible for driver maintenance. 

(;) Basic privates. The basic privates are used as re- 
placements, and are trained as observers and messengers. 
(*) ADMINISTRATION GROUP. This group con- 
sists of the transportation sergeant, supply sergeant, 
armorer-artificer, mess sergeant, cooks and cooks' helper, 
automobile mechanic* and company clerk. Their prin- 
cipal duties are: 

(a) Transportation sergeant. The transportation ser- 
geant is in charge of the company transport. He super- 



4 



vises the operation and maintenance of the motor 
vehicles of the company. For his duties in ammunition 
supply, see paragraph 21. 

(b) Supply sergeant and armorer-artificer. The supply 
sergeant is responsible for the replenishment and dis- 
tribution of all supplies, except rations and water. He 
keeps the company commander informed of the needs 
of the company. He also supervises the work of the 
armorer-artificer. During combat, he will usually be in 
the forward area in order to assist the company com- 
mander in matters relating to supply, particularly of 
ammunition. The armorer-artificer will usually be in 
the train bivouac, where he assists in the procurement 
and distribution of supplies, executes minor repairs on 
weapons and other equipment, and performs simple 
carpentry tasks. 

(c) Mess sergeant, cooks, and cooks' helper. The mess 
sergeant is responsible for checking the rations and 
water issued to the company, the division of rations into 
meals, the supervision of the cooks and cooks' helper in 
the preparation of meals, and the distribution of meals 
to the company'. He and his assistants work in the regi- 
mental train bivouac, under the direct supervision of 
the service company commander, except when distribut- 
ing meals in the forward area. 

(d) Automobile mechanic. The automobile mechanic 
performs company maintenance o£ company transporta- 
tion under the supervision of the transportation sergeant. 
He drives the maintenance truck (3^-ton weapon car- 
rier) , and is responsible for driver maintenance. (Sec 
par. 34.) 

(e) Company clerk. The company clerk keeps the 
company records. As a member of the regimental per- 
sonnel section, he functions under the personnel officer. 
In combat, the personnel section may be separated from 
the regiment, and operate and move with the 1 rear 



5 



echelon of the division or corps; otherwise, it operates 
in the regimental train bivouac. 

C. Platoons. For the composition of antitank platoons 
and the antitank mine platoon, see figure 1 and para- 
graphs 97 and 149, respectively. 

2. ARMAMENT, o. Genera/. The armament of the anti- 
tank company includes crew-served and individual 
weapons. 

(1) The crew-served weapons are the 57-mm antitank 
gun, the antitank rocket launcher, and the caliber .50 
machine gun. 

(a) The individual weapons are the rifle, the carbine, 
and the pistol. 

{3) For descriptions and characteristics of weapons, see 
TM 9-303 and FM 23-5, 23-7, 23-30, 23-35, 23-65, and 

23-75- 

b. Crew-served Weopons. (i) 57-MM ANTITANK 
GUN. The principal weapon of the antitank company is 
the 57-mm antitank gun. This gun has a high muzzle 
velocity and flat trajectory; its practicable rate of fire is 
15 to 20 rounds per minute. The rate of fire is influenced 
more by observation of effect than by any limitations of 
the piece. It has a relatively wide traverse (go ) ; the 
trails can be shifted readily to permit it to engage targets 
appearing beyond this traverse. 

(a) Ranges. The effective range of the gun when 
used against moving vehicles is limited largely by the 
ability of the gunner to secure hits on a moving target. 
Normally, fire will not be opened against tanks at ranges 
greater than 800 yards. Fire opened at longer ranges, or 
without regard for the terrain, subjects the gun positions 
to premature disclosure and consequent loss of surprise. 
Such action enables hostile tanks to take position with 
hull defilade and open fire on the guns, (See fig. s.) 



6 





7 



(b) Angle of impart. The penetrating ability of the 
armor-piercing projectile ic v latest when the angle be- 
tween the path of the projec and the plane of the 
portion of the target which it sti. ;es is 90 °. The pene- 
trating ability lessens as the angle deviates from 90 , 
and is markedly reduced when the deviation is greater 
than 20 . Armored vehicles usually have their heaviest 
armor in front, with much thinner armor on the sides, 
rear, and underneath. Every effort should be made to 
obtain hits on the sides, rear, and under surfaces of 
these vehicles, even though the angle of impact deviates 
from 90°. 

(c) Mobility. When drawn by prime mover, the gun 
has high mobility, both on roads and across country. 
Because of its weight, it has a limited capacity for move- 
ment across country by hand. Every effort should be 
made to provide additional assistance to the squad when 
long movements must be made by hand. 

(d) Vulnerability. The antitank gun is extremely 
vulnerable during movements in the zone of infantry 
fire. It is also more or less vulnerable when in firing 
position, depending upon whether or not it is emplaced 
and, when emplaced, upon the nature of the terrain. 
Because of the risk that a gun will be discovered and 
destroyed, or that its crew will become casualties from 
hostile fire before it can be effectively used, it should 
be kept in a cover position until, a hostile attack is im- 
minent. {See par. 6b.) 

(3) ANTITANK ROCKET LAUNCHERS. Antitank 
rocket launchers and high explosive rockets are provided 
for use against tanks and other armored vehicles. The 
rockets are also effective against buildings and masonry. 

(a) Launchers are issued on the basis of two per 
squad in the antitank squad, and one to the platoon 
headquarters in the antitank mine platoon. They are 
normally carried on prime movers. Ammunition bearers 



8 



or other members of gun crews not absolutely required 
for service of the principal weapon are designated as 
rocketeers by the squad leaders. To provide necessary 
assistance in loading and reloading, antitank rocket 
launchers are normally operated by teams of two men 
each. The rocket may be fired from the prone, standing, 
sitting, or kneeling position; it may be fired from an 
emplacement (pit or pit fox hole) , provided this is so 
constructed that the blast from the rear of the launcher 
will not be deflected against die loader or other nearby 
personnel. (See app, L) 

(b) The rocket has a maximum range of 650 yards, 
ft is reasonably accurate against moving targets at ranges 
up to 300 yards. In order to achieve greater accuracy 
and assist in effecting surprise, fire against moving targets 
is withheld until the last practicable moment. 

(c) The flanks and rear of crew-served weapons are 
particularly vulnerable to mechanized attack.. When 
such an attack is imminent, the rocket team takes posi- 
tions which permit flanking fire against the lighter 
armor on the sides and rear of armored vehicles. Employ- 
ment in pairs of teams will facilitate the action of com- 
bating two or more hostile armored vehicles which 
attack simultaneously from different directions. 

(d) Likely avenues of approach for hostile armored 
vehicles not covered by antitank guns, are reconnoitered, 
and firing positions for rocket teams selected and pre- 
pared as soon as practicable. 

(e) For use of the antitank rocket as an antitank 
mine, see paragraph 163. 

(3) MACHINE GUNS. A caliber .50 machine gun is 
mounted on one of the three iy^-ton trucks (prime 
movers) in each antitank platoon, chiefly for employ- 
ment in the antiaircraft defense of the platoon transport. 
A ground mount is also provided for the local protection 
of the platoon transport. All personnel are trained to 



9 



fire the weapon. When the truck is halted, and only the 
driver is present, he will execute such fire, if necessary. 

e. Individual Weapons. (1) CARBINES, RIFLES, 
AND PISTOLS. These weapons are employed for the 
emergency defense and local protection of individuals, 
groups, guns, and company installations. (See par. 15.) 
When elements of the company are operating in ex- 
posed positions, it is imperative that additional riflemen 
be detailed for their close-in protection. 
(2) RIFLE GRENADES, (a) The antitank rifle gren- 
ade is used against tanks and armored vehicles. (See 
FM 23-30.) It is fired from such rifles and carbines in the 
company as are equipped with grenade launchers. Within 
its effective range, approximately 75 yards, the high ex- 
plosive grenade is effective against all known light and 
medium tanks; it may also be used as an antipersonnel 
grenade at ranges up to s6o yards. 

(6) Each truck driver is armed with a rifle or carbine, 
and grenade launcher, to be used primarily for the pro- 
tection of his truck against attacks by armored vehicles 
approaching within effective range. The leader of each 
antitank squad may utilize the truck driver, when not 
required with the vehicle, to assist in protecting the gun 
and crew against mechanized attack, particularly from 
directions not covered by the fire of antitank guns. 

3. EQUIPMENT, a. General. For equipment of the 
antitank company, see Table of Organization and Equip- 
ment. 

b. Signal Communication Equipment. The antitank 
company is provided with the following signal com- 
munication equipment: a vehicular radio set, low-power 
portable radiotelephones, sound-powered telephone 
equipment, pyrotechnic devices, panel sets, and mainte- 
nance equipment, 



10 



(i) The vehicular radio set operates in a division or 
higher unit warning net when such operation is pre- 
scribed; otherwise, it may be used for communication 
with regimental headquarters. 

(s) Low-power portable radiotelephone sets are used 
for communication within the company command net 
or any other designated net within the regiment. 

(3) Sound-powered telephone equipment is used for 
communication within the company when the elements 
are not too widely separated. All or any number of the 
sound-powered telephone sets may be retained by com- 
pany headquarters for communication between — 

(a) The company command post and a company 
warning post or security detachment. 

(b) The company command post and the platoon 
leaders. 

(c) The company command post and other head- 
quarters. 

(4) Projectors may be used within the company and 
between the company command post and the command 
posts of higher and adjacent units. Panels are used for 
air-ground communication. 

4. TRANSPORT, a. The company transport comprises 
the vehicles organically assigned to the company (see 
Table of Organization and Equipment) . Ordinarily, 
these vehicles are used for command, communication 
and maintenance, as prime movers, and for transporta- 
tion of ammunition and company personnel. 

b. Whenever the terrain is suitable, and hostile fires per- 
mit, 57-mm guns and ammunition are moved by prime 
movers. Individual arms, except those on weapon carriers 
and prime movers, are carried by the individuals to 
whom assigned. When effective hostile fire prevents 
movement by vehicles, the guns and ammunition are 
moved by hand. 



11 



c. One truck and trailer of the transportation platoon, 
service company, are allotted to the company as the 
antitank company section of the regimental kitchen and 
baggage train. 



SECTION II 
TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT 



5. GENERAL, a. Tank Tactics. (1). Tanks are likely 
to attack in large numbers with the mission of breaking 
through and overrunning our defended localities. They 
endeavor to gain surprise by attacking from unexpected 
directions, and across terrain which appears to be im- 
passable for armored vehicles. Extensive bombardment 
and dive-bombing will frequently precede the launching 
of the attack. The attack is usually led by large numbers 
of tanks which seek to destroy our antitank guns; the 
tanks will be followed by infantry, who destroy any 
areas of resistance left by the tanks and exploit success. 
Reserve infantry and antitank guns may be brought up 
to carry out encircling attacks from a flank. 

(2) On encountering an antitank gun, one tank will 
seek cover and pin the gun by fire, so that other tanks 
can envelop the gun and attack it from the flanks and 
rear. Tanks normally attack by fire; seldom by charging. 
They make full use both of their machine guns and anti- 
tank weapons, ranging from 50-mm upwards, for this 
purpose. At close quarters they also make use of gren- 
ades. 

(3) During the extensive reconnaissance preceding the 
attack, the enemy makes full use of decoys, and sends 
out fighting tank reconnaissance to discover the where- 



12 



abouts of antitank guns. This fighting reconnaissance 
will both bait antitank guns at long ranges and pene- 
trate into localities in an attempt to make the guns 
disclose themselves. 

(4) Tanks usually avoid firing when on the move; con- 
sequently, upon discovering targets, they will attempt 
to get into positions in hull defilade prior to opening 
fire. 

b. function of Antitank Company. The function of 
the antitank company is to provide protection, in con- 
junction with the battalion antitank platoons, to the 
regiment or its elements against attacks of hostile 
armored vehicles, whether in offensive or defensive com- 
bat. Surprise, mobility, aggressiveness, and flexibility are 
essential. Combat action is never static in. the sense that 
the guns remain constantly in one position, prepared to 
expend their fire power on a single target. 
(1) PRIMARY MISSIONS, (a) The company may be 
assigned one or more of the following primary missions 
by the regimental commander: to reinforce the antitank 
defense of front-line battalions; to deepen the anti- 
mechanized defense within the regimental zone or sector; 
to protect the flanks and rear of the regiment against 
armored attack. The last named mission may include 
protection of the regimental command post, of ammuni- 
tion distributing points, and of the route of ammuni- 
tion advance. The regimental commander may assign 
sectors of responsibility including specific avenues of 
approach, or may specify directions of fire. In order to 
insure continuous protection of the regiment against 
hostile armored attack, the employment of units of the 
antitank company must be included in the general plan 
of action of the regiment as a whole, and their move- 
ments and positions coordinated with those of cannon 
company howitzers and of the antitank elements of bat- 
talions, adjacent units, and higher units. Their employ- 



13 



ment as independent defensive elements results in wide 
dispersal and loss of mutual fire support, and leads to 
uncoordinated action and loss of effectiveness. 

(b) Missions assigned by the regimental commander 
are usually based on recommendations made by the 
company commander; if not, it is the duty of the latter 
to recommend any changes which, in his opinion, the 
situation requires. (See par. 8b.) 

{2) SECONDARY MISSIONS, (a) The regimental 
commander may assign antitank elements of the com- 
pany a secondary mission of neutralizing or destroying 
hostile observation posts, and antitank and other 
weapons which have survived preparatory or other fires 
and which offer a threat to friendly troops. The regi- 
mental commander may also assign fire missions against 
definitely located crew-served weapons, emplacements, 
pill boxes, groups of personnel offering remunerative 
targets, or similar point targets. Such missions are fre- 
quent when the regiment is engaged in a special opera- 
tion, such as an attack against a town or fortified posi- 
tion. 

(b) If a hostile mechanized attack develops while 
guns are engaged in any secondary mission, they revert 
at once, without further orders, to their primary mission 
of antimechanized defense. 

(c) To avoid premature disclosure of the location of 
antitank defenses, such secondary missions should be 
performed, whenever possible, from supplementary firing 
positions well removed from primary firing positions. 

6. POSITIONS (see fig. 3) . a. Firing Positions. Firing 
positions of antitank guns are classified as primary, sup- 
plementary, and alternate. 

(1) PRIMARY. The primary firing position is the posi- 
tion from which the gun can best execute its primary 
mission. 



14 



PRIMARY MISSION- 
TO COVER THIS APPROACH 



SUPPLEMENTARY MISSION- 
TO COVER THIS APPROACH 




® 



ALTERNATE POSITION 

(FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MISSION) 

POSITION FOR OBSERVER 



figure 3. Gun positions. 



1 



{2) SUPPLEMENTARY. A supplementary firing posi- 
tion is one from which the gun can perform a fire mis- 
sion which cannot be accomplished from its primary 
position. 

(3) ALTERNATE, (a) An alternate firing position is 
one which is occupied to avoid enemy fire directed at a 
primary or supplementary position, and from which the 
same fire missions can be executed as from the respec- 
tive primary or supplementary position. An alternate 
position must be close enough to the primary (supple- 
mentary) position for movement of the gun by hand, 
and by routes affording cover and concealment. It should 
be located far enough (at least 75 yards) from the 
primary (supplementary) position to avoid being in- 
cluded in the effective area of fires directed on that posi- 
tion. When practicable, several alternate positions should 
be selected for each primary and supplementary position. 

(b) Fire, once opened, is not interrupted while hostile 
tanks remain within range. This fire will, however, dis- 
close the location of the firing position, necessitating 
movement to an alternate position. In such case, ad- 
vantage should be taken of any lull in the action to 
effect the movement. 

b. Cover positions. Cover positions are those (other 
than firing positions) in the immediate vicinity of the 
gun, which afford defilade and concealment for men and 
weapons not actively engaged with the enemy. 

C Firing Position Areas. The areas within which 
the firing and cover positions of platoons (squads) are 
located arc known as firing position areas. Firing posi- 
tion areas should afford — good observation and fields of 
fire; suitable locations for primary, supplementary, and 
alternate firing positions for each gun; partial defilade 
for firing positions; nearby cover positions defiladed 
from hostile flat-trajectory fire; covered routes to firing 
positions for movement of the guns and replenishment 



16 



o£ ammunition; concealment from air observation in 
both cover and firing positions; protection against mech- 
anized attack by natural or artificial obstacles, particularly 
on the flanks of the area; sufficient distance from features 
likely to attract hostile fire, such as crossroads and mortar 
or artillery positions. Whenever practicable, the field of 
fire should contain no ground which affords hull defilade 
positions to hostile tanks. 

<f. Uncoupling Positions, (i) Uncoupling positions 
are those where guns are uncoupled, and from which 
they are moved by hand to firing or cover positions. 
Uncoupling positions should be under cover and de- 
filaded, if possible, and as near as practicable to firing 
or cover positions. 

(2) While the guns of an antitank unit are in firing or 
cover positions, the vehicles of the unit arc held in a 
covered and concealed location in rear. In moving situa- 
tions, this location should be close enough to the firing 
position to permit communication by arm-and-hand 
signals, and reduce the manhandling of ammunition to 
a minimum. 

e. Readiness for Action. Crews manning antitank 
guns must be prepared at all times to meet a sudden 
mechanized attack. The guns may be in one of the fol- 
lowing degrees of readiness for action. 

(1) MOBILE. Guns held mobile are kept coupled to 
the prime mover; engines of prime movers are kept 
warm; in urgent situations, crews remain entrucked. 

(2) IN COVER POSITION, (a) The gun remains in 
its cover position until required, when it is moved quick- 
ly by hand to the firing position. At times, fires in 
directions other than the principal direction of fire of 
the gun may be delivered from the cover position, while 
the gun and crew remain defiladed from the front. 

(b) It may frequently be necessary to dig emplace- 
ments and fox holes at cover positions for protection 



17 



against the heavy preparatory artillery fires, aerial bom- 
bardment and infantry supporting fires which usually 
precede hostile mechanized attack. 
(3) IN FIRING POSITION. A gun ordinarily cannot 
be kept in a firing position exposed to flat-trajectory fire 
from the front except in defensive combat or in other 
situations where it is practicable to prepare and camou- 
flage an emplacement at the firing position. When de- 
filaded from such fire it may be placed (emplaced, if 
time permits) in a firing position covering a sector of 
responsibility extending to the flank; such a location is 
similar to that which would be a suitable cover position 
if the sector of responsibility extended to the front. 

f. References. For mechanical training, gun drill, 
and technique of fire,, see FM 23-75. For the training 
of individuals in other weapons, sec FM 23-5, 33-30, 
2 3-35> 2 3- e °. an <l 23-65- 

7. TERRAIN. Within the limitations fixed by the loca- 
tion and mission of troops, the terrain and its probable 
influence upon a hostile mechanized attack govern the 
distribution of the antitank gun units and the employ- 
ment of the antitank mine platoon. Terrain particularly 
influences the operation of armored vehicles in the fol- 
lowing respects: 

a. Covered and concealed routes of approach are 
sought. 

b. Open spaces, or terrain exposed to distant observa- 
tion, will be avoided or crossed at high speed. 

c. Water, soft ground, steep banks, heavy woods, and 
similar difficult terrain usually will be avoided. How- 
ever, the defender must not place undue reliance for 
antitank defense on features which are unfavorable to 
tank action, but must be prepared to cover them, as 
well as favorable terrain, by fire. 



18 



SECTION III 



COMBAT DUTIES OF COMPANY 
COMMANDER 

8. COMMANDER AND STAFF OFFICER, a. As Com- 
pany Commander, (i) The commander of the antitank 
company must anticipate and plan in order to prepare 
the company for prospective missions; his supervision 
must be continuous to insure that all subordinates prop- 
erly execute their part in the company task. In con- 
formity with orders from higher headquarters, he is 
responsible for decisions as to specific courses of action. 
While he may accept advice and suggestions from any 
of his subordinates, he alone is responsible for what his 
unit does or fails to do. 

(s) For a description of the duties of the company com- 
mander in supply and motor maintenance, see chapter 3. 

b. As Regimental Aniitank Officer. The commander 
of the antitank company is the regimental antitank 
officer. He advises the regimental commander on matters 
pertaining to defense against armored vehicles. He main- 
tains close contact with the regimental S-g, through 
whom he may submit his recommendations, and receive 
the regimental commander's orders. (See FM 7-40 and 
100-5.) His duties include— 

(i) Making timely recommendations for the anti- 
mechanized defense of the regiment, to include the em- 
ployment of the antitank company, battalion antitank 
platoons, and other battalion and regimental antitank 
weapons; necessary coordination with the regimental 
howitzer officer whenever cannon units are directed to 
supplement the antimechanized defense of the regiment; 
the improvement of natural obstacles; and the construc- 



19 



tion of artificial obstacles. If, prior to submission of 
recommendations by the antitank company commander, 
the regimental commander has already made a decision, 
the former recommends such changes as he considers 
necessary. 

(2) Keeping S-2 informed of all steps taken for anti- 
mechanized defense which are likely to affect the plans 
for the regimental antiair-antimechanized warning sys- 
tem. 

(3) Coordination of all antimechanized activities, in- 
cluding supporting and attached units, within the regi- 
mental area, and of these activities with the plans of 
higher and adjacent units. 

(4) Making timely recommendations for the breaching 
of hostile mine fields. 

(g) Making timely recommendations for changes in the 
locations or missions of any elements of the anti- 
mechanized defense of the regiment, as changes in the 
situation require. 

9. CONTROL, a. The degree of control which the com- 
pany commander exercises over the activities of each 
platoon during combat depends on several factors: the 
time available to effect reconnaissance and issue orders; 
his ability to observe the zone of action or sector of the 
platoon; facilities for rapid communication with the 
platoon; his ability to employ efficiently the agencies of 
signal communication available in the company; and 
the speed and intensity of the action. Whenever prac- 
ticable, control is exercised as follows: 
(i) Each antitank platoon is assigned a position area; 
or concealed and defiladed area, if guns are to be held 
mobile. It is also assigned a sector of responsibility and 
principal direction (s) of fire covering one or more likely 
avenues of hostile tank approach, and is given specific 
instructions as to the conditions under which it will 



20 



open fire. I£ the platoon is to occupy successive positions, 
similar instructions are issued for each position. In 
addition, the time, route, and method of displacement 
to each successive position may be prescribed by the 
company commander. 

(2) The mine platoon is assigned locations for mine 
fields and mined road blocks, and is given specific in- 
structions and information concerning the instajla- 
tion (s) which must be effected, the protection to be 
given the platoon by other units while the mines are 
being laid, and the responsibility of the platoon for 
guarding the installation after its completion. If the 
mines are to be removed and laid again in successive 
locations, similar instructions are issued for each loca- 
tion; in addition, the company commander prescribes 
the time or conditions upon which the removal is to 
commence, and the route to be followed to the new 
location (s) . 

(3) The company commander controls the movement 
of ammunition vehicles in rear of each platoon area, 
and the supply of ammunition or mines to that area. 

fa. When, as is frequently the case, such complete and 
centralized control is impracticable, control will be par- 
tially decentralized To platoon leaders by means of 
mission orders. A mission order is one which assigns a 
definite mission to a subordinate unit, but leaves a part 
or all of the details of execution to the subordinate unit 
leader. The degree to which control may be decentral- 
ized by the company commander will be based upon a 
determination of the method which will best insure 
maximum antimechanized protection for the regiment 
under the existing conditions. Examples are as follows: 

(1) In a moving situation, a platoon may be assigned 
an initial firing position area, a sector of responsibility 
and a principal direction (s) of fire, with the mission 



21 



of protecting a flank of the regiment from the initial 
firing position area and subsequent firing position areas 
to be announced later. In this case, determination of the 
conditions for opening fire is decided by the platoon 
leader. 

{2) A platoon may be assigned the mission of protecting 
a Hank of a battalion which is advancing in the leading 
ectlelon of the regiment. In this case, the initial posi- 
tion (s) to be occupied, the conditions for opening fire, 
the location of subsequent positions, and the time and 
method of displacement thereto, are decided by the 
platoon leader. 

10. RECONNAISSANCE, a. General. (1) The and 

tank company commander keeps himself informed of 
the locations and capabilities of the antitank means with- 
in the regiment. He secures this information by personal 
reconnaissance; by reports from his reconnaissance officer, 
or other personnel; and by conference with battalion com- 
manders or battalion antitank officers, and the regi- 
mental howitzer officer. In a similar manner, he obtains 
information of the location and nature of existing anti- 
tank obstacles, and determines the feasibility of creating 
others by construction or by improvement of existing 
terrain features. 

(s) Initially, the antitank company commander may 
have little more than a general knowledge of the meas- 
ures for the antimechanized defense being taken by 
adjacent or higher units. In such cases he must take 
prompt advantage of every opportunity to secure the 
necessary additional information, by reconnaissance or 
contact with appropriate unit commanders. After the 
receipt of such information, he recommends any neces- 
sary changes in the regimental plan of antimechanized 
defense. 



22 



b. Planning. Upon receipt of the regimental field 
order, or on the basis of. prior instructions of the regi- 
mental commander, the company commander should— 

(1) Analyze all parts of the order or instructions which 
affect the antitank company. 

(2) Briefly consult with other appropriate officers con- 
cerning details of cooperation and fire support. 

(3) Plan the reconnaissance. 

(4) Issue early instructions for any preparatory move- 
ment or dispositions of the company. 

{5) Inform the second-in-command and first sergeant of 
his route of reconnaissance (if conducted by the com- 
pany commander personally) , and the place and time 
subordinates are to assemble to receive the company 
field order, if such assembly is practicable. 

e. Malting Reconnaissance. (1) Antitank reconnais- 
sance is the examination of terrrain for likely avenues 
of hostile armored approach; location of firing position 
areas and cover and firing positions; concealed positions 
and tentative firing positions and routes thereto for guns 
held mobile; possible enemy tank assembly areas and 
avenues of approach thereto and therefrom; existing or 
potential tank obstacles; locations for the employment 
of antitank mines; and communication routes and dis- 
tributing points. Reconnaissance habitually precedes 
movement and occupation of positions; its extent, thor- 
oughness, and the assistance required are determined by 
the amount of time available. 

(2) Reconnaissance must be— 
(«) Timely. 

(b) Carefully planned. Use is made of all available 
information, including observation reports, maps, and 
photos. 

(c) Continuous and progressive. 

(d) So conducted as to take full advantage of cover 
and concealment. 



33 



11. ORDERS* 0. Having decided upon a detailed plan 
of action to carry out an assigned mission, the. company 
commander assigns specific missions to his subordinate 
units. Sketches or overlays are furnished when prac- 
ticable. Prior to combat, subordinates can frequently be 
assembled to receive the order. This facilitates orienta- 
tion prior to issuance of orders, and enables the com- 
pany commander to insure that the orders are under- 
stood. In attack, assembly of subordinates will often be 
impracticable because of hostile observation and fires. 
Leaders engaged with the enemy should not be called 
away from their units for the purpose of receiving orders. 
When the commander cannot issue orders to leaders 
personally, they may be transmitted by messenger. 

b. In many situations, it may be necessary or desirable 
to issue warning orders of impending operations. The 
principal purpose of a warning order is to initiate early 
planning, movement, and reconnaissance, and to avoid 
subsequent delays. 

c. The company commander supervises the execution 
of his orders to insure that they are properly understood 
and executed by subordinate units. 

12. LOCATION DURING COMBAT. During combat, 
the antitank company commander goes where he can 
best observe the action of the company or exert the 
greatest influence to obtain decisive results. He will 
ordinarily spend the greater part of his time at the 
observation post or some other point at which he can 
obtain the fullest and most direct information regard- 
ing the operations and situation of his company. He 
maintains continuous contact with the command post, 
and, before leaving the observation post, orients his 
staff as to future plans, including his approximate routes 
and time schedule. He keeps abreast of the situation at 
all times, considers future possibilities, and prepares 



34 



tentative plans to meet them. If he issues orders, or 
acquires information affecting the general situation, he 
informs higher headquarters at the earliest opportunity. 



SECTION IV 
PROTECTIVE MEASURES 

13. WARNING SYSTEM, o. Genera/. The regimental 
antiaircraft-antimechanized warning system includes an 
intelligence system and a signal communication system, 
both coordinated to insure early and continuing in- 
formation of the presence and action of hostile air, 
armored, and motorized forces, (See FM 7-40.) 

b. Regimental Antiaircraft-Antimechanized Warn- 
ing System. (1) The regimental S-a is responsible for 
the establishment and supervision of the regimental 
warning system, and for its coordination with the ob- 
servation system of supporting artillery and the warning 
systems of adjacent and higher units. He utilizes the 
services of the antitank company commander to assist 
him in these functions. 

(2) The regimental warning system includes all recon- 
naissance and security detachments operating under regi- 
mental control, all observation facilities within the regi- 
ment, and air-antitank guards equipped with means for 
giving the alarm. The regimental system of signal com- 
munication is used to transmit warnings between other 
elements of the warning system and regimental antitank 
units. All elements in the system make immediate re- 
port of mechanized threats by the most expeditious 
means of communication available. All warning messages 
are classified as urgent. 



25 



e. Local Warning Systems. Air units and motor 
reconnaissance elements usually give the first warning 
of the presence of hostile tanks in the vicinity of the 
regiment. However, the antitank company commander 
is responsible that an effective local warning system is 
constantly in operation within the company. He insures 
that air-antitank guards are posted by each squad, and 
that warnings received from the regimental warning 
system and from such guards are promptly transmitted 
to all elements of the company. 

d. Warning Signals, To give warning of the approach 
or presence of hostile aircraft or mechanized vehicles, 
the following standard warning signal is prescribed: 
three long blasts of a whistle, vehicular horn, siren, or 
klaxon, repeated several times; or three equally spaced 
shots with a rifle, carbine, or pistol; or three' shoft bursts 
of fire from an automatic weapon. In daylight, the in- 
dividual giving the signal indicates, by pointing, the 
direction of the impending danger. At night, the alarm 
signal will be supplemented by voice to indicate the 
direction. In addition to the standard signals, other 
available means, such as radio and pyrotechnics, may 
be employed. 

14. ACTION IN CASE OF AIR ATTACK, a. Regard 
less of the effectiveness of the security measures taken 
by higher command through the offensive action of 
combat aviation, all units must consider the probability 
of air attack and reconnaissance and employ appropriate 
security measures. Passive measures include dispersion, 
concealment, and camouflage. Active measures comprise 
firing at attacking airplanes. 

b. Fire will not be delivered on any aircraft unless it 
is clearly recognized as hostile, or is positively identified 
as hostile, or unless the aircraft attacks with bombs or 
gunfire. Concealment and camouflage are used whenever 



26. 



possible to prevent detection by enemy aircrait. If con- 
cealment is believed to have been achieved, no weapons- 
are fired at approaching enemy aircraft. 

c. (1) On the march, upon receipt o£ warning of 
hostile air attack, prime movers and other vehicles are 
driven off the road; whenever terrain and time permit 
they are driven off the road far enough to clear the 
probable impact area. Maximum use is made of any 
available cover and concealment. All men, except those 
designated as crews for the caliber J50 machine guns, 
dismount and take cover, but remain close enough to 
their vehicles to resume movement as soon as the attack 
has passed. 

(2) In other situations, upon warning of air attack, 
personnel of the antitank company disperse and take 
cover, except gun crews who arc engaged in a fire fight 
with hostile tanks; such crews continue to combat the 
tanks. 

(3) Caliber .50 machine guns and individuals armed 
with rifles and carbines open fire upon attacking planes 
only upon command or prearranged signal of the com- 
pany commander or responsible unit leader, given as 
soon as the planes are within effective range. 

15. CLOSE-IN DEFENSE AGAINST MECHANIZED AT- 
TACK. If tanks succeed in approaching within goo yards 
of an antitank gun, personnel not engaged in operating 
or serving the gun, or in firing at accompanying foot 
troops, employ rockets and individual weapons against 
the tanks. Doors and turrets, if open, offer particularly 
favorable targets to small-arms fire, as do also vision 
slits and periscopes. Should tanks succeed in approach- 
ing close enough to warrant such action, incendiary 
grenades, antitank bombs, and smoke grenades may be 
used. Fire is continued until defenders are forced to 
take cover to avoid the crushing action of tanks. (See 



27 



app. I.) They return to their firing positions as soon 
as the tanks have passed, and continue their fire on 
these vehicles or on other approaching tanks or accom- 
panying infantry. 

16. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION, a. Full advantage 
should be taken of available cover and concealment, 
both while in movement and while halted. 

b. Whenever troops are halted in a combat zone, in- 
dividual protection will be sought and improved, or 
excavated. When the halt is expected to be brief, they 
will take advantage of such natural protection as is 
afforded by the terrain. When the halt is expected to 
be for a longer period, as, for example, a halt in an 
assembly area, fox holes will be dug. Full advantage 
will be taken of natural cover and concealment in the 
construction of fox holes. Guns are unplaced and con- 
cealed, whenever time permits. 

c. For details of construction and camouflage of fox 
holes and weapon emplacements, see appendix I. 



CHAPTER 2 
MEDICAL SERVICE AND EVACUATION 



17. AID STATIONS, a. Elements of the antitank com- 
pany utilize tlie aid stations of battalions in whose areas 
they are operating. If not operating in a battalion area, 
they utilize the regimental or nearest battalion aid sta- 
tion. 

b. At the beginning of an action, the antitank com- 
pany commander contacts the regimental surgeon to 
insure a clear understanding as to which aid stations are 
to be utilized by the elements of the company; there- 
after, he keeps the surgeon informed of changes in the 
location of these elements, since such changes may re- 
quire corresponding changes in designation of aid sta- 
tions which they are to utilize. 

18. COMPANY AID MEN AND LITTER BEARERS, a. 

Company Aid Men. Company aid men are attached to 
battalion lettered companies and the antitank company 
on a basis of three per company. They are attached in 
turn to platoons of their respective companies. Elements 
o£ the antitank company are served by their own com- 
pany aid men. These aid men operate between forward 
positions and battalion aid stations ,or the regimental 
aid station. The battalion antitank platoon is served by 
aid men of the nearest lettered company. Duties of com- 
pany aid men are— 



29 



(t) To follow closely the unit to which they are at- 
tached. 

(a) To administer emergency treatment to the sick and 
wounded. 

{3) To send information to die battalion (regimental) 
surgeon by walking wounded or litter bearers. These 
messages give the location of the unit, any contemplated 
changes in location or disposition, and the approximate 
number and location of casualties in the unit. area. 

(4) To instruct walking sick and wounded as to the 
exact location of the aid station and the route thereto. 

(5) To place seriously sick and wounded in sheltered 
locations on the route of advance of the company which 
they serve. 

(6) To examine, tag, and mark the location of the dead. 
b. Litter Bearers. A litter bearer section of 12 men is 

attached to each battalion. These sections work in teams 
of 2 or 4 men; teams vary in size according to the weight 
of the load and the carrying distance. Litter bearers 
evacuate nonwalking wounded from battlefield positions 
to battalion aid stations. Leaders of antitank elements 
desiring litter evacuation of wounded personnel contact 
appropriate aid stations and request such evacuation. 

19. ORDERS. The antitank company order will include 
the designation and locations of aid stations to which 
Casualtiei will be evacuated. All members of the company 
will be informed of these designations and locations. 
If, during the course of the action, the casualties of any 
element of the company are to be evacuated to a different 
aid station from that originally announced, or any other 
changes in the system of evacuation are to be made, the 
company commander issues the necessary additional in- 
structions. 



30 



CHAPTER 3 
SUPPLY AND MOTOR MAINTENANCE 



SECTION I 
SUPPLY 

20. REFERENCES. For definitions and methods relating 
to supply, see FM 7-30 and 100-10; for logistical data, 
see FM ioi-to; for administrative procedures, see TM 
13-250 and 13-255. 

21. CLASS V SUPPLY, o. General. (1) Class V supply 
includes all types of ammunition for the weapons of the 
company, as well as antitank mines and pyrotechnics. 

(2) Initial supply of ammunition for the antitank com- 
pany is carried as follows: 

For— Carried on- 

Antitank guns. Prime movers. 

Machine guns, cal. .50. Prime movers. 
Antitank grenades. Prime movers and com- 

pany headquarters vehi- 
cles. 

Antitank rocket launchers. Prime movers. 
Carbines, pistols, and rifies. Individuals. 
Mines. Cargo vehicles of the anti- 

tank mine platoon. 

(3) The War Department or the theater of operations 
commander prescribes the initial amounts of ammuni- 



31 



tion to be carried. The amount carried on the individual 
and on the company transport is that deemed sufficient 
to enable the company to enter and sustain combat until 
replenishment can be effected. 

b. Replenishment. (1) RESPONSIBILITY. The regi- 
mental commander is responsible for making ammuni- 
tion available, in adequate amounts, to the company 
ammunition supply point. The company commander is 
responsible for distributing ammunition to his platoons. 
The platoon leaders are responsible for distributing 
ammunition to their squads. 

(2) GENERAL PLAN OF REPLENISHMENT, (a) 
Ammunition for the antitank guns and other weapons 
is ordinarily delivered to the company ammunition sup- 
ply point by vehicles of the regimental train. The com- 
pany distributes its ammunition from this point. (See 
fig- 4-) 

(b) Ammunition for the battalion antitank platoon 
and any elements of the antitank company attached to 
the battalion is the responsibility of the battalion com- 
mander. He arranges for replenishment of ammunition 
from or through the regimental ammunition supply 
point. 

(3) COMPANY AMMUNITION SUPPLY POINT. 

(a) The company commander selects the company am- 
munition supply point, which usually will be near the 
company command post, so as to take advantage of the 
company communication net. Vehicles proceeding to 
or from the company ammunition supply point will be 
routed so as to avoid passing closer than necessary to 
the company command post. Desirable characteristics 
of a company ammunition supply point are- 
Location at or in rear of a point from which 

covered routes to the platoons diverge. 
Concealment from air and ground observation. 
Defilade from hostile flat- trajectory fire. 



32 




Figure 4. Ammunition supply. Regimental vehicles procure antitank 
ammunition from the army ammunition supply point, and deliver it, 
through the regimental ammunition supply point, to the company 
ammunition supply point. The company distributes ammunition 
within the company area. 



33 



Ease o£ identification. 

Facility of motor movement to the rear. 
(b) The supply sergeant, assisted by other personnel 
designated by the company commander, operates the 
company ammunition supply point. The status of am- 
munition supply ■within the platoons must be reported 
frequently to operating personnel at this point during 
all phases of combat. 

(4) CONTROL OF PLATOON VEHICLES. All plat- 
oon vehicles remain under platoon control while within 
a platoon area. The company transportation sergeant 
supervises, coordinates, and expedites the movement of 
vehicles used for carrying ammunition while en route 
from the platoon area to the company ammunition sup- 
ply point, and return. 

(5) ANTITANK PLATOON, (a) Replenishment in 
attack. 

1. Because of the limited mobility of the antitank 

gun when moved by hand, the prime 
movers should normally remain under 
cover near the gun positions. In an emer- 
gency, the truck in platoon headquarters 
may be used to replenish the ammunition 
supply. If replenishment in larger quan- 
tities becomes necessary, arrangements must 
be made to secure a vehicle from the regi- 
' mental train. 

2. The platoon sergeant keeps himself informed 

regarding the status of ammunition within 
the platoon. The tactical situation permit- 
ting, he dispatches the platoon headquart- 
ers truck to the company ammunition sup- 
ply point for emergency replenishment. 
Tile noncommissioned officer in charge of 
the company ammunition supply point has 
this -vehicle refilled and dispatches it to the 



34 



platoon from which it came. The normal 
ammunition loads of prime movers should 
be continually maintained. Small stocks of 
ammunition may be located near gun posi- 
tions, and sufficient quantities to meet esti- 
mated needs kept at the position. 
^. A platoon leader confronted with emergency 
ammunition requirements so notifies the 
company commander, who may direct pri- 
ority of ammunition supply to that platoon, 
or transfer of ammunition from platoons 
whose expenditure has been less. 

(b) Replenishment in defense. 

1. The regimental commander will prescribe the 

amount of ammunition to be unloaded in 
the regimental sector of the battle position. 
After the enemy has advanced to contact, 
replenishment of ammunition from the 
rear is frequently practicable only under 
cover of darkness. Provision must be made, 
however, for the immediate resupply of any 
antitank elements of the company whose 
ammunition becomes seriously depleted. 
This is accomplished by keeping a propor- 
tion of the ammunition at the company 
ammunition supply point, established in 
the vicinity of the company command post, 
or by transfer of ammunition from platoons 
whose expenditure has been less, as in ^ 
above. 

2. Ordinarily, platoon leaders will be instructed 

to report, at or shortly before dark, the 
amounts of ammunition on hand. Basing 
his action on diese reports, the company 
commander plans and effects distribution 



35 



to the platoons of the resupply of ammu- 
nition brought forward after dark. 

(c) Replenishment of antitank elements attached to 
battalion. A stock of antitank ammunition should, if pos- 
sible, be held at the battalion ammunition supply point 
for the battalion antitank platoon. In an emergency, 
replenishment for attached antitank elements may be 
effected from this stock; at other times, vehicles of these 
elements are refilled at the company ammunition supply 
point, being routed through the battalion ammunition 
supply point. 

(d) Replenishment during rapidly moving situations. 
In a rapid forward movement, such as with an advance 
guard or in pursuit, the system of ammunition sujiply is 
similar to that in attack. When distances from supply 
points are so great as to make replenishment difficult, 
needs must be anticipated and additional quantities of 
ammunition and transport secured from higher head- 
quarters. 

(e) Replenishment in retrograde movements. During 
retrograde movements, replenishment of ammunition 
will be held to the minimum necessary for antimecha- 
nized defense. Sufficient amounts for the contemplated 
action are left with each unit. Regimental ammunition 
carrying vehicles may be released to the company or 
platoon on rear positions; or resupply may be effected 
by the establishment of ammunition supply points by 
higher headquarters, either on selected delaying positions 
or along the route of withdrawal. The regimental com- 
mander will inform the company and battalion com- 
manders as to the location of such supply points. 

(J) Replenishment by hand-carrying. At limes, the sit- 
uation may prohibit the movement of vehicles between 
platoon firing position areas and the company ammuni- 
tion supply point. When such a condition occurs during 
a moving situation, it is ordinarily impracticable for 



36 



antitank company personnel alone to hand-carry suffi- 
cient ammunition to effect adequate replenishment. The 
regimental commander, upon request of the company 
commander, insures replenishment either by reinforcing 
the company with additional personnel or by delivering 
the ammunition, through hand-carry by personnel of 
other units, to one or more points designated by the 
company commander from which hand-carry by per- 
sonnel of the company is practicable. Similar assistance 
is made available by battalion commanders to battalion 
antitank platoons and any attached antitank elements; 
personnel of the ammunition and pioneer platoon and 
necessary additional personnel may be employed. 
(6) REPLENISHMENT OF ANTITANK MINES, (a) 
In certain situations, particularly in defensive action, it 
may be necessary to use all of the mines carried in the 
antitank mine platoon vehicles. Whenever practicable, 
however, approximately one- third of the initial allow- 
ance of the antitank mines should be kept on one of the 
vehicles as a mobile reserve. 

(b) When the situation indicates that mines will be 
required in certain locations for a limited period of time 
only, after which they must either be recovered or aban- 
doned, the regimental commander may direct that the 
mine platoon vehicles (cargo trucks and trailers) be held 
available to transport the recovered mines. Unless the 
vehicles are to be employed for this purpose, the mine 
platoon leader sends them through the company ammu- 
nition supply point to the regimental ammunition sup- 
ply point, as soon as they have been emptied. The regi- 
mental munitions officer may in turn dispatch the vehi- 
cles to the army ammunition supply point for refill. 

(c) When the need for any given mine field or mined 
road block no longer exists, the mines should be dis- 
armed, collected, and inspected, and usable mines loaded 
on available platoon vehicles. When cargo space is in- 



37 



sufficient to load all mines so collected, the surplus mines 
will be placed in small dispersed piles, and their location 
reported to the regimental commander for disposition. 

(ci) l£ lack of time, shortage of personnel, or other 
reasons prevent recovery of planted mines, the mine field 
must be guarded by a traffic guard (s) , and the location 
reported to the regimental commander. An exception to 
such, procedure is the abandonment of a mine field dur- 
ing a retrograde movement after all friendly vehicles 
have passed. 

22. ORDERS, a. Administrative details in company or- 
ders include such of the following items as are applic- 
able: 

(i) Location of company ammunition supply point and 
of regimental ammunition supply point, 
(a) Route of advance of ammunition (in attack only) . 
(3) Amount of ammunition to be placed on positions. 
{4) Disposition of company vehicles. 
{5) Location of class III supply point (s) . 
(6) Location of regimental and battalion aid stations. 

b. Additional directions of an administrative nature 
may be included in the order, or issued later in frag- 
mentary form to those concerned. These directions may 
include the plan for feeding, and the detailing of guides 
and carrying parties. 

c. Similar appropriate information is contained in the 
order of the platoon leader. 

23. EXPEDIENTS IN THEATER OF OPERATIONS, a. 

Exploitation. Efficient use must be made of all resources 
in the regimental area to supplement supply and to pro- 
vide for deficiencies when the normal means for procure- 
ment and distribution of supplies are inoperative or 
partially inoperative. Troops must be trained to load, 
lay, and fire captured weapons in general use by the 

38 



enemy; and to effect minor repairs and operate enemy 
transport, both mechanized and motorized, in constant 
use within the theater of operations. 

b. Battlefield Recovery of Vehicles, Weapons, and 
Other Supplies, Means within the regiment must be em- 
ployed to recover vehicles, both our own and those of 
the enemy, which are serviceable or can be made ser- 
viceable within the combat zone before the fluctuation 
of battle permits the enemy to recover or destroy them. 
When ammunition is exhausted and serviceable weapons 
and ammunition of the enemy are available, these should 
be used. Usable stocks of all types of supplies which are 
discovered within the regimental area must be guarded 
and higher authority immediately notified of the general 
type, amount, and location of such supplies. 

c. Destruction of Serviceable or Reparable Vehi- 
cles and Usable Supplies. Troops must be trained in 
quick, effective methods for the destruction of materiel 
and supplies of all types. In the case of weapons and 
vehicles, efficient destruction will require further action 
than the mere removal of certain working parts. If or- 
ganic means are not supplied with vehicles, efficient 
methods must be improvised for destruction of the latter 
and to render useless all other types of supplies. Prompt 
action will be taken to prevent serviceable equipment 
or usable supplies from falling into the hands of the 
enemy, (See FM 83-75.) 



39 



SECTION II 
MOTOR MAINTENANCE 



24. RESPONSIBILITY AND DUTIES, o. The company 
commander is responsible for the operation and mainte- 
nance of his vehicles. Operating personnel are carefully 
selected. The most important link in the chain of main- 
tenance is the driver. He is selected for his ability, judg- 
ment, and conscientious performance of duty. He is 
carefully instructed in driving, in the required march 
inspections, and in driver maintenance. By observation 
and frequent personal and staff inspections, the company 
commander insures that these duties are properly per- 
formed. 

b. The company automobile mechanic, under the 
supervision of the transportation sergeant, is charged 
with company maintenance. The service company main- 
tenance section will perform organizational maintenance 
which is beyond the capabilities of the antitank, com- 
pany automobile mechanic. 

c. Vehicles requiring maintenance beyond the capa- 
bilities of the antitank company are reported to S-4. 
For echelons of maintenance, see AR 850-15. 

<f. For a discussion of the problems involved in the 
operation and maintenance of motor vehicles in cold 
climates and in desert country, see FM 25-10, 31-15. 
and 31-25. 



40 



CHAPTER 4 
MARCHES AND BIVOUACS 



SECTION I 
MARCHES 

25. REFERENCES. For the fundamental doctrines gov- 
erning troop movements, see FM 100-5. For technical 
and logistical data pertaining to troop movements, see 
FM ioi~io. For conduct o£ the regiment and battalion 
in route marches, see FM 7-40 and 7-20. For operation 
of regimental trains, see FM 7-30. For detailed treatment 
of motor movements, see FM 25-10. F'or forms for march 
orders, see FM 101-5. 

26. GENERAL, a. The antitank company commander 
is charged with the organization and coordination of 
the antimechanized defense' of the regiment on the 
march in accordance with instructions from the regi- 
mental commander. 

b. The recommendations of the company commander, 
made prior to the start of the march, should include the 
attachment of elements of the company to security forces 
and the disposition and missions of that portion of the 
company held under his control. Recommendations 
should be such as to provide maximum protection to 
the regiment in coordination with the antimechanized 
measures of the battalions and of adjacent and higher 
units; 



41 



27. DAYLIGHT ROUTE MARCHES, a. Antitank Com- 
pany, (i) The elements of the antitank company must 
be so distributed for the protection of the regiment as 
to provide defense against mechanized attack from all 
directions. If the terrain permits rapid cross-country 
movement, or road conditions permit elements of the 
company to pass the regimental column, these elements 
occupy successive firing positions along the route of 
march. While roads intersecting the route of march are 
the most dangerous and should be covered by either 
gun units or obstacles (including mines) or both, die 
possibilities of infiltration by hostile armored vehicles 
must also receive constant consideration. 
(2) Antitank units move by bounds from one position 
to another. Each prime mover follows, the preceding 
one at a distance of from 50 to 100 yards. If a leading 
vehicle halts, vehicles in rear are halted; distances are 
maintained unless vehicles are signaled to close up. 
Drivers of vehicles which have halted as a result of 
mechanical failure signal rear vehicles to pass. When a 
column is halted, drivers move the vehicles a short 
distance off the road or trail, and disperse and conceal 
them (see fig. 5) . Guns and vehicles are parked so that 
they may readily resume the march (see fig. 6) . Over 
rough ground or hard going, men dismount and follow 
the vehicles, helping if necessary. One man goes ahead 
to select a route. Covered routes are sought. Edges of 
woods, and scattered buildings or trees contribute to 
concealment (see fig. 7) . Open crests are avoided. When 
moving to positions not fully protected by other troops, 
vehicles advance by bounds, each bound being recon- 
noitered by designated personnel. 



42 




43 




Figure 6. Vehicles parked and concealed ready to resume the march. 
Foliage has been cut away in figure in order to show positions of 
vehicles and guns. 



44 



b. Antimechanized Security, (i) For an interior 
regiment, the most likely direction of hostile armored 
attack during an advance is from the front. For this 
reason, elements of the antitank company should be 
attached to the advance guard or should march well 
forward in the column in order that they may rapidly 
reinforce the antitank platoon of the advance guard bat- 
talion. In the latter case, priority on roads for the anti- 
tank company should be requested by the company com- 
mander. 

(2) A hostile mechanized attack in flank becomes more 
probable as the interval between regiments increases. 
In an advance with an exposed flank, antitank company 
elements should be attached to the flank guard. When 
several dangerous flank localities must be passed during 
the progress of a march, echelons of the flank guard 
move by bounds from one position to another (see fig. 
8) . If there is a single avenue of approach from a 
threatened flank, the flank guard may occupy a single 
key terrain feature, the possession of which will afford 
the necessary antimechanized protection to the main 
body. This key terrain feature may be utilized as an 
initial delaying position or defended until the mission is 
accomplished. In case of attack, the main body com- 
mander is immediately notified and the flank guard 
delays the advance of the enemy until the main body 
can prepare for action or until the tail of the column 
passes -a designated point, (See FM 7—40.) 

(3) In a march toward the enemy, the rear of the regi- 
ment is usually protected by a small rear guard; an ele- 
ment of die antitank company may be attached to this 
force. In a retirement, the regimental rear guard will 
be much stronger and may include the attachment of 
one or more antitank platoons, and a part or all of the 
mine platoon from the antitank company. In general, 
the combat action of antitank elements attached to the 



46 



rear guard in close contact with the enemy is conducted 
in accordance with the procedure described for a de- 
laying action (occupation of successive delaying posi- 
tions to die rear) . 

(4) The antitank units (including battalion antitank 
platoons) , cannon company elements, and supporting 
field artillery in the main body, are so disposed as to 
effect coordination with antitank elements of the advance, 
flank, and rear guards in providing antitank defense to 
the regiment. The detailed distribution of the antitank 
company in the main body varies with the terrain and 
anticipated tactics of hostile armored elements. When 
the terrain facilitates movement, it is generally pre- 
ferable to hold the bulk of the weapons under cen- 
tralized control in a position favoring quick reinforce- 
ment of any part of the column which is under im- 
mediate threat of hostile armored vehicles that have 
evaded or penetrated the security elements. 

(5) A reconnaissance detail, headed by the company 
reconnaissance officer, marches well forward with the 
advance guard in order to furnish early information of 
possible routes of approach of hostile armored vehicles, 
and suitable positions for guns and mine fields. This 
detail should be furnished with radiotelephones for com- 
munication with the regimental command group. 

C. Command Group. The company command group 
habitually marches with the regimental command group. 
The company commander is with or maintains liaison 
with the regimental commander. 

d. Action in Case of Attoek. Upon receipt of warn- 
ing of a mechanized attack, the company commander 
obtains the decision of the regimental commander as to 
whether the regiment will meet the attack in place or 
continue the march to a more suitable locality. He must 
be prepared to submit brief, specific recommendations 
for the employment of all antitank weapons not attached 



48 



to security forces. If time permits the use of mines, he 
should recommend that they be laid in localities where 
they will divert the hostile mechanized attack or canalize 
it into areas covered by the concentrated fire of antitank 
weapons. Elements of the company should at all times 
be prepared to move into firing positions without delay. 

28. NIGHT ROUTE MARCHES, o. At night the com 
pany usually marches as a unit in the regimental motor 
column. However, if there is danger of a hostile mechan- 
ized attack, elements of the company may be distributed 
throughout the entire column; attached to fiank guards, 
or employed to establish road blocks on approaches in- 
tersecting the flanks. (See FM 7-40.) 

b. The company commander and all subordinate 
leaders devote particular attention to march discipline 
to include sound and light discipline, maintenance of 
contact, and security. Units are kept well closed up, and 
distances are greatly reduced. If illuminated by flares 
from aircraft, all elements of the company halt; in- 
dividuals keep their heads down and remain motionless 
until the light dies out. Normally, hostile aircraft are 
not engaged by fire. 

e. If the company is to establish road blocks along the 
flanks, a detailed daylight reconnaissance of the route 
and of the road block sites should be made, if practic- 
able. Personnel making this reconnaissance should in- 
clude the company commander and the leader of each 
unit which is to be employed to establish such road 
blocks. If circumstances prevent a terrain reconnaissance, 
a map reconnaissance should be made. In either event, 
route sketches must be prepared for the use of each 
leader responsible for establishing a block. These 
sketches should show the road, prominent landmarks 
near the road which can easily be recognized at night, 
load junctions, cross roads, and any distinguishing fea- 



49 



lures thereof, compass bearings for each important 
change of direction, and distances from the initial point 
to the more important features. When the situation per- 
mits a terrain reconnaissance, it should be conducted by. 
single vehicles in order not to attract enemy attention. 
The route is carefully marked, particularly at road junc- 
tions and cross roads. Guides, luminous markers, lime, 
tape, or paper strips may be used. If guides are posted, 
they remain concealed during daylight and display no 
lights at night, except as authorized by the company 
commander for control of the movement. 

29. ANTIMECHANIZED PROTECTION DURING MO- 
TOR MOVEMENTS, a. Antimechanized protection of 
the regiment during motor movements includes both 
active and passive defense measures. Within the column, 
units having suitable weapons are in general responsible 
for their own immediate defense. Units not having such 
weapons are so disposed as to receive protection from 
suitably armed units, or special provision is made for 
their defense. 

(i) Active defense measures include the distribution 
of antitank weapons of the regiments throughout the 
column; however, the bulk of the antitank company is 
frequently attached to security elements. 

{2) Passive defense measures include concealment, dis- 
persion, deception, speed, and use of mines and other 
obstacles, both natural and artificial. 

b. Wficn the route of the motor movement is inclosed 
by natural tank obstacles with but few openings, anti- 
mechanized defense of the motor column is best obtained 
by the placing of elements of the antitank company at 
or near these openings prior to the advance of the main 
body (see fig- 8) . After passage of the command, these 
elements successively resume their places in column or 
join the rear of the column. 



50 



30. MARCHES UNDER SPECIAL CONDITIONS. For 

discussions of marches in mountainous terrain, deserts, 
jungles, and in extreme cold, see FM 100-5, 3 l-1 5' 
and 31-25. 

31. MARCH OUTPOST. When antitank elements are 
attached to security elements and the latter become 
march outposts, antitank guns are employed in a manner 
similar to that in antimechanized protection of a bivouac 
area. (See par, 33.) 



51 



SECTION II 



BIVOUACS 

32. ANTIMECHANIZED PROTECTION OP BIVOUAC 
AREA (see fig. 10) . a. In a route march protected by 
covering forces to the [ront, the regimental commander 
may direct the antitank company to proceed directly to 
the bivouac or assembly area and establish temporary 
antimechanized defense prior to arrival of the rest of 
the regiment. Although the antitank elements cannot 
precede the regiment in an uncovered route march, it 
is especially important that the antimechanized defense 
of the bivouac or assembly area be established promptly 
upon arrival of the troops. During the march, the anti- 
tank company commander may be required to formulate 
a plan for such antitank protection. He ordinarily rec- 
ommends the employment of the battalion antitank 
platoons in firing position areas on the perimeter, in the 
sectors allotted to their respective battalions. Considera- 
tions of terrain and the limitations of the guns determine 
the portions of die perimeter which can be thus pro- 
tected. If, in the opinion of the company commander, 
the battalion antitank guns are insufficient in number 
for complete perimeter defense, he may recommend that 
a part or all of the antitank company guns be employed 
to assist in such defense. Any remaining guns may be 
held mobile pending the completion of a reconnaissance 
of the bivouac area. Whether the antitank company 
precedes or accompanies the remainder of the regiment 
to the bivouac area, the company commander initiates 
as early a reconnaissance thereof as is practicable, pre- 
paratory to recommending a coordinated plan for its 
defense. 

b. Whether the regiment bivouacs alone or as part of 
a larger force, it is frequently necessary to place all bat- 



53 



talion and regimental antitank guns, except those in- 
cluded in mobile detachments, in firing position areas 
around the perimeter of the bivouac area. Howitzers of 
the cannon company may also be employed to cover 
secondary avenues of approach, or to reinforce the fires 
of antitank guns from rear positions. The employment 
of howitzers is coordinated through the regimental S-3. 
Whether the regiment bivouacs alone or in proximity 
to a larger force, mobile detachments which include 
antitank guns, howitzers, and artillery elements may be 
organized. These detachments are held within the bi- 
vouac area until a threat of hostile mechanized attack 
develops, when they are employed to meet, disrupt, and 
delay the attack outside the perimeter of defense. 

c. Mines may be laid across tank approaches so as to 
canalize hostile tanks into the fire of defending antitank 
guns. They may also be used in the immediate vicinity 
of antitank guns to protect such guns against attacking 
tanks. Guards and suitable warning signs must be used 
to prevent accidental detonation of the mines by friendly 
troops or vehicles. 

33. OCCUPATION OF BIVOUAC AREA. o. Within 
the portion of the bivouac area assigned to the antitank 
company, the company commander assigns locations for 
those elements not employed on security missions, and 
for the company command post and kitchen. Vehicles 
are ordinarily placed in concealment and defilade, and 
so disposed in direction and position as to be able to 
resume the march with the minimum of confusion and 
delay. An interior guard is established to maintain 
camouflage discipline and to give the alarm in case of 
attack. (See FM 7-40.) 

b. All personnel, wherever located, are required to dig 
one-man or two-man fox holes. These fox holes, as well 
as tentage, if used, must be camouflaged from aerial 
observation. 



53 



CHAPTER 5 
OFFENSIVE COMBAT 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

34. REFERENCES. For the fundamental doctrines cov- 
ering offensive combat, see FM 100-5. For general doc- 
trines governing offensive combat by the infantry regi- 
ment and battalion, see FM 7-40 and 7-20, respectively. 
For signal communication and combat intelligence, see 
FM 7-25. For supply see FM 7-30. 

35. INFANTRY MISSION. In the attack, the primary 
mission of infantry is to close widi the enemy, and de- 
stroy or capture him. 

36. DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS. The general distri- 
bution of the infantry regiment in offensive action com- 
prises a reconnaissance and security echelon, an attack- 
ing echelon, a reserve echelon, and an administrative 
echelon. The security echelon may include reconnais- 
sance elements, an advance security detachment (ad- 
vance guard) , flank and rear security detachments, and 
connecting groups or contact patrols. The attacking 
echelon may comprise one or more battalions, with any 
attached units or weapons. The administrative echelon 
comprises the service company (less regimental head- 
quarters personnel) and the regimental medical detach- 
ment. The reserve echelon comprises the remainder of 
the regiment. 



54 



SECTION II 



APPROACH MARCH 

37. DEVELOPMENT ORDER. The regimental com- 
mander's development order assigns protective missions 
to the antitank company. These missions may include — 

a. Flank protection of the regiment against armored 
attack from specified directions or areas. 

b. Protection of the advance of the leading bat- 
talion (s) , or echelon (s) , of the regiment. 

38. DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS OF ANTITANK 
COMPANY, a. When the regiment is in the leading 
echelon of the division, and is advancing without cover- 
ing forces to its front, or behind covering forces which 
are inadequate to prevent hostile mechanized attack, the 
distribution of the antitank company during the ap- 
proach march is frequently as follows: 

(1) One or more antitank platoons attached to or sup- 
porting the leading battalion (s) . 

(2) The remaining antitank platoon (s) disposed to 
provide protection to the second echelon of the regi- 
ment. Protection of the flanks and rear are primary con- 
siderations. 

(3) The mine platoon usually marches with the second 
echelons, prepared to move promptly to any threatened 
locations upon development of a hostile mechanized 
attack. 

(4) The company command group moves with the 
regimental command group. The company commander 
is with, or maintains liaison with the regimental com- 
mander. He maintains contact with his platoons by 
radiotelephone (unless radio silence' is prescribed) and 
by motor messengers to coordinate their operations with 



55 



the activities of battalion antitank platoons to insure 
continuous protection to the regiment. 

b. When the situation requires that the regiment 
establish a flank guard, elements of the antitank com- 
pany are usually attached thereto. 

39. MOVEMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES. Upon initia- 
tion of the approach march, the regimental commander 
releases antitank company vehicles to the company com- 
mander. Since movement by hand of the 57-mm anti- 
tank guns is impracticable for extended distances, the 
prime movers of the antitank platoons usually accom- 
pany their units. Movement may be made by long bounds 
from cover to cover. Routes which follow easily dis- 
tinguishable terrain features are preferable, even though 
circuitous. 

40. DAYLIGHT APPROACH MARCH, a. Formations. 

A daylight approach march must be made in formations 
which afford protection against artillery fire, attack by 
ground forces, and air attacks. Maximum advantage of 
the terrain will be taken for concealment and cover, and 
for firing positions affording good observation and fields 
of fire against likely hostile armored attack. -Platoons 
will be separated laterally, or in depth, or both, depend- 
ing upon the terrain, the frontage which each must 
cover, and the proximity and actions of the enemy. The 
company commander does not usually prescribe the 
formations within platoons, but promptly corrects any 
erroneous formations adopted by the latter. 

b. Company Commander's Development Order. 
(1) By prompt, concise orders, frequently in fragment- 
ary form, the company commander distributes the pla- 
toons for the execution of the missions assigned to the 
company. He prescribes the initial positions or locations 
in the regimental formation, and the mission of each 



56 



platoon. Orders for the movement of antitank units 
which are to be attached to battalions or other elements 
are issued by the company commander at the earliest 
practicable moment following receipt of the regimental 
order. 

(2) The company commander also prescribes the 
method of movement of each platoon; that is, whether 
it is to move so as to maintain approximately its initial 
position in the regimental formation, or by bounds from 
one firing position area to another. Unless mechanized 
attack is imminent, each gun on completing a bound 
remains coupled to its prime mover in a cover position 
located near a tentative firing position. Ordinarily, the 
antitank weapons are moved by echelon,, so that at least 
part of them are always prepared for action. When the 
platoon is directed to move by bounds, the company 
commander, either in the initial order, or by subsequent 
fragmentary orders, should inform the platoon leader 
of the time or conditions of release from each successiye 
location, and whether the latter is responsible for recon- 
naissance of these locations. He may also prescribe 
whether the displacement will be made by the entire 
platoon at one time, or by leap-frogging individual guns. 

c. Reconnaissance Daring Approach March, (1) 
The company commander is responsible for continuous 
reconnaissance throughout the approach march. He is 
assisted by the reconnaissance officer, reconnaissance ser- 
geant,, and such other personnel as he may designate. 
If the company commander personally heads a recon- 
naissance detail, the second-in-command is placed in 
control of the company, and may act as the representa- 
tive of die company commander with the regimental 
commander. 

(2) Reconnaissance is executed to locate likely avenues 
of tank approach, gassed areas, areas exposed to hostile 
observation, tank obstacles, routes of advance, obstacles 



57 




Figure 9. Deviation from assigned route of advance. Routes exposed 
to hostile observation and arliileiy fire, are avoided. A concealed and 
covered route is followed. 



58 



to motor movement, detours, stream crossings, and the 
selection of firing position areas and locations for anti- 
tank mines. Maps and aerial photographs, if available, 
are used to supplement study of the ground. 

d. Conduct of Platoons. During the march, routes 
are utilized affording cover and concealment from hostile 
ground and air observation, gassed areas arc detoured, 
and areas being shelled avoided (see fig. 9) . When 
shelled areas or prominent points exposed to hostile 
observation cannot be avoided, vehicles are required to 
cross these areas or points individually, at high speed. 
Preparation for immediate action is maintained through- 
out the movement. 

e. Antiaircraft Security. Subordinate units are re- 
sponsible for their own protection against air attack. 

4!. NIGHT APPROACH MARCH, a. A night approach 
march differs from a daylight approach march principally 
in the great difficulty of maintaining direction and con- 
trol. Detailed plans are made to reduce these difficulties. 
Routes are carefully selected. If die march is made across 
country, routes are plotted on maps or sketches, so that 
direction can be maintained by compass readings and 
the use of landmarks. Lateral dispersion is avoided, and 
distances and intervals are reduced. Bounds, when used, 
are shorter than those by day. 

b. The antitank company usually marches as a unit 
with the regimental motor elements. Squads or platoons 
may, however, be given specific security missions to pro- 
tect the front, flank (s) , or rear against 'surprise mechan- 
ized attack. 

e. The company commander's order for a night ap- 
proach march is similar to that for a daylight approach 
march, with appropriate modifications. 

d. If a separate route or zone of advance is assigned 
to the company, a daylight reconnaissance should be 

59 



made by the company commander, or by such personnel 
as he may designate, for the purpose of securing accurate 
compass directions, plotting and marking the routeSj 
and posting guides at critical points. Circuitous routes 
which follow easily distinguishable terrain features are 
preferable to more direct but less clearly marked routes. 

SECTION in 
ASSEMBLY AREAS 

42. OCCUPATION OF ASSEMBLY AREA. When prac- 
ticable, the regiment occupies assembly areas preliminary 
to deployment for attack. The attack is organized and 
coordinated in these areas; equipment not essential to 
combat is disposed of, and extra ammunition issued. 
Units are assigned positions in the area in accordance 
with their subsequent employment in action, but are 
kept sufficiently dispersed so as not to present con- 
centrated targets to air attack or artillery fire. Recon- 
naissances are made and orders issued before departure 
from the assembly positions. (See FM 7-40.) 

43. ANTIMECHANIZED PROTECTION OF ASSEM- 
BLY AREA (see fig. 10). o. When the approach march 
of the regiment is made under the protection of covering 
forces to the front, the antitank company commander, 
with reconnaissance personnel, may precede the regiment 
in order to initiate early reconnaissance for the anti- 
mechanized protection of the assembly area. If the cover- 
ing forces are sufficiently strong, all or part of the anti- 
tank company may be directed to precede the regiment 
during the later stages of the approach march in order 
to establish antimechanized protection prior to the 
arrival of the regiment at the assembly area. 



60 



b. When directed to submit recommendations, and a 
terrain reconnaissance is impracticable, the company 
commander makes an immediate study of available maps, 
aerial photographs, and reconnaissance reports. He then 
submits recommendations for the defense of the peri- 
meter of the assembly area, specifying areas to be covered 
by the fires of the battalion antitank guns, which, to- 
gether with areas covered by his own guns and the 
howitzers of die cannon company (if used) , will insure 
the all around defense of the assembly area. He may 
recommend, after consultation with the howitzer officer, 
that howitzers which are not required to be emplaced 
initially to supplement- and reinforce the defense, be 
held mobile at a central location. He may recommend 
the laying of antitank mines, if his knowledge of the 
situation and terrain is sufficient to warrant such action 
at this time. 

c. Upon receipt of die regimental commander's order, 
the company commander issues fragmentary orders 
specifying the firing position areas to be occupied by 
platoons upon their arrival at the regimental assembly 
area, and principal direction of fire of each platoon. 

d. The company commander should promptly initiate 
an inspection of the antimechanized defense, employing 
the second-in-command or reconnaissance officer to assist 
him. This inspection should determine — 

(1) Whether all tank approaches to the area are under 
observation and are adequately covered by fire. 

(a) Whether changes are necessary in the locations or 
missions of any antitank weapons engaged in antitank 
defense. 

(3) Whether mines should be employed. 

e. Changes in the dispositions within platoons of his 
own company, necessary for the proper fulfillment of 
their assigned missions, are effected by the company com- 
mander at once. Immediatety following this inspection, 

61 



he recommends to the regimental commander the loca- 
tion of any antitank mine fields to be laid, and any 
changes required in the initial assignment of locations 
or missions of his own or battalion antitank platoons, 
in the employment of. rocket teams, or in the employ- 
ment of cannon company weapons necessary to provide 
effective antimechanized defense. If the situation is 
urgent, recommendations are dispatched by messenger 
during the course of the inspection, 
f. The company commander must insure that — 

(1) Advantage is taken of all natural concealment, and 
of every accident of the terrain, to disperse and conceal 
troops, vehicles, and guns from hostile aerial or ground 
observation and to minimize the effects of artillery or 
aerial bombardment. 

(2) Advantage is taken of all available obstacles to tank 
movement, such as streams, closely spaced stumps, 
boulders, or large trees. 

(3) All personnel dig fox holes. 

(4) Local security, unless provided by other troops de- 
tailed for the purpose, is promptly established. 

(5) If time permits, the physical condition and equip- 
ment of each individual is checked by his immediate 
superior. 

(6) Men are given all possible rest. 

SECTION IV 

RECONNAISSANCE PRIOR TO ATTACK, 
PLANS, AND ORDERS 

44. REGIMENTAL RECONNAISSANCE PARTY. The 

regimental commander is assisted by certain staff officers 
in reconnaissance. The reconnaissance party usually 



63 




Figure 10. Defense of an assembly area. An antitank platoon of the. 
antitank company, and one from a battalion, occupy firing positions 
covering mined avenues of approach. Two antitank company pla- 
toons and two battalion antitank platoons are held mobile, prepared 
to move rapidly to reconnaitered firing positions upon learning of 
hostile tank attack- 



breaks up into small groups for detailed reconnaissance, 
as directed by the regimental commander. The antitank 
company commander may be instructed to accompany 
the regimental commander on reconnaissance, or to meet 
him, at a designated time and place, prepared to submit 
recommendations lor the antimechanized protection of 
the regiment during the advance to the line of departure 
and the attack. In the second instance, the antitank 
company commander will initiate a reconnaissance upon 
which to base the required recommendations. (See FM 
7-40-) 

45. RECONNAISSANCE. 0. The company commander 
must carefully plan his reconnaissance in order to 
achieve the maximum results in the time available. Be- 
fore starting, he makes a brief map study, secures perti- 
nent information of the enemy and of adjacent and sup- 
porting units, and decides how much ground he can 
cover in the time available. He issues instructions for 
any necessary preparatory movement of the company, 
and announces the time and place subordinates are to 
assemble to receive the company attack order, if such 
assembly is practicable. He also informs the senior officer 
with the company of his route of reconnaissance, so far 
as known. He confers with adjacent and higher com- 
manders, either prior to, during, or following the recon- 
naissance, for coordination of firing position areas and 
other details of antimechanized defense. Time may be 
so pressing that reconnaissance by the regimental com- 
mander, prior to the issuance of his attack order, will 
be extremely limited, or even confined to a map study. 
Under these circumstances, the company commander 
completes a reconnaissance, similar in scope to that de- 
scribed in b below, at die earliest practicable moment 
after the regimental attack order is issued. He then sub- 
mits recommendations for any essential changes in the 



64 



positions or missions assigned to elements of the com- 
pany in the regimental order. 

b. The regimental zone of action is frequently too 
large for thorough reconnaissance by one individual in 
the limited time available. The company commander 
may, therefore, divide the area for detailed reconnais- 
sance among reconnaissance personnel, platoon leaders, 
and himself, or he may divide the area among these 
individuals, while he makes a general survey from a few 
selected vantage points. 

e. The reconnaissance should be executed according 
to the prepared reconnaissance plan. For a discussion of 
antitank reconnaissance, see paragraph 10. If the regi- 
ment is to pass through a covering force, the reconnais- 
sance 'should include a determination of the locations 
and missions of antitank units of that force, and the in- 
structions which they have received as to their conduct 
after the attack commences. 

46. PLANS, a. During his reconnaissance, the company 
commander makes his plans for the employment of the 
antitank elements of the regiment in the attack and the 
advance thereto. His plan will include the times, or 
conditions, for elements of the company to commence 
their forward movement. This may involve the selection 
and occupation of intermediate positions between those 
occupied for protection of the assembly area and those 
to be initially occupied for the attack. If the movement 
of the regiment to the line of departure is to be made 
at night, the plan ordinarily includes blocking all roads 
leading into the regimental zone of action from the 
flanks by means of mines or other obstacles. 

b. As the attack progresses, the company commander 
must be constantly prepared to recommend, and to effect, 
such changes in the locations or missions of platoons as 
may become necessary through changes in the situation 
and as dictated by the terrain. 



65 



47. ORDERS, a. Following the receipt of the regi- 
mental attack order, the company commander initiates 
the movement of any element o£ the company which is 
to support or be attached to a battalion or other sub- 
ordinate unit of the regiment, and issues the attack 
order. 

b. Whenever practicable, the order is issued to the 
officers and selected noncommissioned officers of the com- 
pany at a location affording cover and concealment, and 
from which terrain features referred to in the order can 
be pointed out. In rapidly moving situations, the as- 
sembly of leaders is usually impracticable, and orders 
must be issued in fragmentary form to individual pla- 
toon leaders, either orally or by written messages. 

C. The attack order, whether issued in complete or 
fragmentary form, covers — 

(1) Necessary information of the enemy and of friendly 
troops, to include — 

(a) Types of enemy tanks operating in the vicinity. 

(b) Locations of known or suspected enemy mine 
fields or mined road blocks; information as to passages 
and warning signs. 

(c) Proposed movement and plan of action of friendly 
tanks operating in the vicinity, their identifying marks, 
and signals. 

(d) The challenge signal (if prescribed) to be used 
in requiring that tanks believed to be friendly identify 
themselves. 

(i?) Location of nearby antitank guns of other units, 
and of known mine fields and other obstacles pertaining 
to friendly troops. 

(2) Regimental zone of action and objectives, general 
plan of attack, and mission of the company. 

(3) (a) Instruction to each antitank platoon to covet- 
as many of the following details as are appropriate: un- 
coupling positions; firing position area, sector of re- 



66 



sponsibiJity and principal direction of fire (or its Joca- 
tion and mission (s) , if guns are to be held mobile) ; 
conditions for opening fire; any special instructions con- 
cerning coordination with other antitank elements 
operating; in its zone of action. The order should in- 
dicate at what time, or under what circumstances, as for 
example, the initiation of movement by a specified bat- 
talion or other element of the regiment, platoons will 
move to initial positions for the attack, and should con- 
tain any necessary instructions for the conduct of the 
movement. 

(b) Location of mine fields or road blocks to be laid 
by the mine platoon; any special instructions concern- 
ing the laying or guarding of mines; reconnaissance and 
other preparations for laying additional fields; location 
of the mine platoon upon completion of its tasks. 

(4) (a) Ammunition supply; location of company 
ammunition supply point; instructions for disposition 
of prime movers. 

(f>) Location of regimental and battalion aid stations. 
(5) Provisions for signal communication, details of 
warning system not covered in prior instructions, perti- 
nent extracts from signal operation instructions, such 
as call names, frequencies, prearranged message code, 
map coordinate code, and pyrotechnic signals; location 
of regimental, battalion, and antitank company com- 
mand posts; location of company commander. 

SECTION V 
EMPLOYMENT IN ATTACK 

48, GENERAL, o. {1) When the regiment moves to 
attack positions in daylight, one or more platoons of 
the antitank company will usually, be employed to re- 
inforce the antimechanized defense of the leading bat- 



67 



talion (s) during the advance to the line of departure 
and the attack. These platoons, under company control, 
will usually occupy positions in rear of the guns of the 
battalion antitank platoons, to reinforce their fires and 
furnish them mutual support; to limit penetrations 
made by hostile armored vehicles; to cover approaches 
on the flanks and rear of the attacking battalions; and 
to maintain the continuity of protection of these bat- 
talions by timely displacement (see fig. n) . 
(2) When the regiment moves at night to positions 
from which it will launch a daylight attack, roads enter- 
ing the flanks or rear of the regimental zone of action 
will often be the only feasible routes by which hostile 
armored vehicles can interfere with this movement. The 
company commander reconnoiters for suitable locations 
for road blocks to be established after dark. The recon- 
naissance should also cover firing position areas and 
mine field locations for the attack as well as enemy mine 
fields offering a threat to the advance of friendly troops. 
Routes to firing positions and mine field locations are 
marked, and guides familiarized therewith. Whenever 
practicable, the company commander submits his recom- 
mendations to the regimental commander and issues 
his orders to subordinates in time to permit them to 
reconnoiter their assigned positions during daylight. By 
conferences with commanders or antitank officers of bat- 
talions and of higher and adjacent units, he insures co- 
ordination of all antitank means, including rocket teams. 
All movements are made quietly and without lights; 
they should be completed without confusion or loss of 
time. Radio silence is preserved. Firing positions are 
occupied prior to daylight. 

b. In cases where organic battalion antitank weapons 
are inadequate to protect the attacking echelon of a bat- 
talion, or to cover all of the forward approaches, a gun 
or guns of the antitank company may be used forward, 

«6 



Figure 7i. Initial dispositions for coordinated iue of antitank guns in 
a regimental attack. Regimental antitank guns, from positions in the 
center and rear, deepen the antimechanized defense, provide protec- 
tion to the flanks and rear, and assist in the coordination of fires with 
the guns of adjacent units. 

69 



near the leading troops. This may be effected througli a 
specific mission-type order to the element (s) of the anti- 
tank company so employed, or by the attachment of a 
squad or platoon to the battalion. When a platoon is 
attached, the battalion commander may employ the bat- 
talion antitank platoon on one flank of the battalion 
area, and the attached platoon on the other, bringing 
forward the required number of guns from each platoon 
to cover the forward approaches. For details of employ- 
ment of the platoon in such a case, see paragraph 100. 

c. The remainder of the company is employed to pro- 
vide antimechanized defense in depth for the regimental 
zone. The positions and missions of elements of the com- 
pany so employed are coordinated with the antimechan- 
ized defense of the reserve battalion and of the support- 
ing artillery. When the available elements of the com- 
pany are insufficient to cover all likely avenues of hostile 
tank approach, they may be disposed in depth toward 
the most vulnerable area; a portion may be held mobile. 
(See par. 6e (1) .) 

d. (i) In the attack, mines are used principally to 
supplement the antitank defense of the flank (s) and 
rear of the attacking echelon by the establishment of 
hasty mine fields and road blocks across likely avenues 
of approach for hostile armored vehicles. Roads extend- 
ing in the direction of the attack may require blocking 
in the event of enemy counter-attacks. Mines may also 
be employed to protect command and administrative 
installations. (See ch. 9.) 

(a) Elements of the antitank mine platoon are respon- 
sible for the protection of all mine fields or mined road 
blocks which they have installed, unless other troops are 
specifically detailed for the purpose, or until relieved 
by higher authority. Such protection includes the mainte- 
nance of a traffic warning guard and posting of warning 
signs to prevent casualties to friendly troops and ve- 



70 



hides; small-arms fire is employed to prevent hostile in- 
terference with mine installations. (See par. 161.) They 
are also responsible for gapping or assisting in gapping 
enemy mine fields as directed by the regimental com- 
mander. (See par. 169.) 

49. LOCATION OF COMPANY COMMANDER. The 

company commander goes where hi'; presence is most 
needed (see par, is). If necessary, he designates his 
second-in-command or other available individual to 
maintain liaison with the regimental commander. 

50. RECONNAISSANCE DURING ATTACK. Recon- 
naissance should be continuous throughout the attack. 
Reconnaissance personnel closely follow the attacking 
echelon, and reconnoiter areas previously indicated by 
the company commander for advance firing position 
areas for the elements under company control, routes of 
advance thereto, observation posts, and routes for am- 
munition vehicles. The reconnaissance officer and the 
reconnaissance sergeant are furnished with radiotele- 
phones when practicable. They report the locations of 
enemy mine fields, likely avenues of tank approach, and 
possible locations for mine installations. They recom- 
mend to the company commander new firing position 
areas and principal directions of fire for the antitank 
platoons, together with covered routes to the new areas. 
In making these recommendations, consideration is 
given to the existing dispositions of battalion antitank 
guns and cannon company howitzers and, as far as can 
be ascertained, their planned dispositions, in order to 
insure coordination. When a platoon or other element 
of the company is operating under a mission order which 
leaves the selection of successive positions to the judg- 
ment of its leader, the company commander promptly 
relays to the latter any pertinent information concern- 



71 



ing positions or routes received from reconnaissance per- 
sonnel. 

51. PROTECTION OF COMMAND POST. In combat, 
the antitank company command post is usually located 
near the regimental command post. For the security of 
the latter, the regimental headquarters commandant 
posts air-antitank guards and patrols. These guards and 
patrols may also provide security for the antitank com- 
pany command post; however, the antitank company 
commander is responsible for the security of his own 
installations and personnel. The headquarters com- 
mandant also prepares plans for the assembling and 
employment of all available personnel when the ap- 
proach of hostile units is reported; these plans may in- 
clude the use of such personnel as are present at the 
antitank company command post. The antitank com- 
pany commander and the regimental headquarters com- 
mandant will coordinate the defenses of the respective 
command posts so as to effect mutual support. Antitank 
mines are frequently employed (see fig. 35 and par. 17 a) . 

52. CLOSE-IN PROTECTION OF ANTITANK GUNS. 

Close-in protection of antitank guns against attack by 
nonmechanized ground forces is provided either by 
members of the gun crews armed with individual 
weapons and with the platoon machine gun, supple- 
mented, if necessary, by the detail of troops armed with 
rifles and bayonets, or by moving the antitank guns 
within an area occupied by riflemen. Mines may be 
employed to supplement the close-in protection of gun 
positions. Protection by troops armed with rifles and 
bayonets is particularly important at night. 

53. ANTIAIRCRAFT SECURITY, a. Each element of 
the antitank company relies chiefly on passive antiair- 



72 



craft measures for its own security. When concealment 
is essential, and is believed to have been achieved, fire 
is not opened on hostile aircraft. Time for preparing 
cover will rarely be available, and advantage must be 
taken of such natural features as are in the immediate 
vicinity of each unit or individual. To avoid detection 
by hostile aerial observation, firing positions which af- 
ford concealment and have concealed routes leading 
thereto are utilized when practicable. Vehicles are 
habitually concealed when not in movement. 

b. For procedure in case of air attack, see paragraph 
14. 

54. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. For the system of am- 
munition supply in the attack, see paragraph 21. 

55. DISPLACEMENT, o. When an element of the anti- 
tank company has been assigned the mission of protect- 
ing a specific rifle unit, the control of displacement is 
ordinarily delegated to the leader of that element. The 
displacement of a platoon supporting a leading battalion 
must be initiated at such time as will insure continuous 
reinforcement of the antimechanized defense of the bat- 
talion. Exceptionally, when the attacking echelon oc- 
cupies a position on or near a crest, guns of these pla- 
toons may move into the position of the leading rifle 
units, or occupy nearby cover, in readiness for such 
displacement. 

b. For other elements of the company, the company 
commander prepares for displacement by timely instruc- 
tions. He may regulate the displacement by the assign- 
ment to platoons of zones of advance, or by prescribing 
the location of new position areas selected on the basis 
of his reconnaissance or reports from reconnaissance 
personnel. He usually leaves the details of the displace- 



73 



ment to platoon leaders, although he may require that 
they secure his approval prior to the movement. 

56. ACTION WHEN ADVANCE IS HELD UP. When 
the advance of the regiment is held up in front of a 
hostile position which cannot be outflanked, the regi- 
mental commander may arrange for a coordinated as- 
sault, supported by the antitank company, cannon com- 
pany, heavy weapons companies, and artillery. Antitank 
units support die action by Firing on suitable targets. 
Rapid displacement must be made to positions from 
which to resist any possible mechanized counterattacks 
or to support the attacking echelon in a continuation 
of the attack. (See par. 55b.) 

57. ACTION DURING REORGANIZATION OF REGI- 
MENT, a. The regiment may halt for reorganization, 
either on the final objective or on an intermediate ob- 
jective before the final objective is reached. Measures 
for defense against mechanized attack must be taken 
promptly, as the regiment is particularly vulnerable to 
such an attack at this time. The antitank company com- 
mander coordinates the dispositions of the company with 
those of the battalions, the cannon company, and adjacent 
or higher units, to insure all around protection during 
the reorganization. Mines may be laid if the situation 
and terrain make their employment feasible and profit- 
able. 

b. The company commander insures that platoon 
leaders take advantage of the first favorable opportunity 
to reorganize their platoons, and that they report their 
strength and ammunition status. He replaces casualties 
among his command group and platoon leaders, makes 
any necessary adjustment of strength among platoons, 
and expedites the replenishment of ammunition. (See 
FM 7-40.) 



74 



c. While the reorganization is in progress, the com- 
pany commander initiates a reconnaissance to select new 
observation posts and firing position areas, and deter- 
mines any changes in missions which may be required 
to insure the continuance of effective antimechanized 
protection. Upon approval of his recommendations by 
the regimental commander, he promptly issues the neces- 
sary orders, including instructions for. movement to new 
positions. Movement to these positions must be con- 
ducted in such a manner as to insure uninterrupted pro- 
tection to the regiment. 

58. PURSUIT, o. General. Upon capturing the final 
objective, leading regiments may be ordered to continue 
the advance in order to maintain pressure on the de- 
feated enemy and prevent his successful withdrawal. At 
the same time, reserve forces, under control of a higher 
commander, may carry out an encircling maneuver to 
block his retreat. 

b. Regiment in Direct Pressure. When a regiment 
is assigned the mission of exerting direct pressure, an 
antitank platoon is usually attached to each leading 
battalion. Antitank guns may be employed to use long- 
range fire in disabling enemy vehicles in defiles and on 
bridges, when such action will interfere with enemy 
withdrawal; they may also be employed to destroy or 
neutralize point targets, particularly armored vehicles, 
firing from delaying positions. Elements of the mine 
platoon may also be attached, although the platoon 
usually remains, at least initially, under the control of 
the company commander. The remaining portion of 
the company is employed primarily for protection of 
the flanks and rear of the regiment. The company com- 
mander usually attaches reconnaissance personnel to 
detached platoons. (See FM 7-40.) 



75 



c. Regiment as En circling Force. When the regi- 
ment forms all or part of an encircling force, the em- 
ployment of the antitank company is similar to that 
described for marches, motor movements, and the ap- 
proach march. Elements of the company may be attached 
to advance, flank, or rear guards. If a motorized detach- 
ment precedes the regiment, antitank company elements 
are usually included. 

d. Baffafionfs) in Direct Pressure and as Encir- 
cling Force. A regiment operating alone or at a con- 
siderable distance from other units, may maintain pres- 
sure with the leading battalion (s) , and carry out an 
encircling maneuver by the battalion (s) in the rear. 
(See FM 7-20.) In such an operation, battalions may 
be reinforced by the attachment of elements of the anti- 
tank company, as in b and c above. 

59. ACTION WHEN ADVANCE IS DEFINITELY 
HALTED. When the advance of the regiment is definite- 
ly halted by hostile resistance, the leading rifle battalions 
pass to the defensive on the ground they have gained. 
During the organization of the position, the antitank 
company commander employs his weapons to provide 
the attacking echelon with antimechanized protection 
in a manner similar to that provided during reorganiza- 
tion. He reconnoiters for more suitable defensive posi- 
tions, and for positions from which the attack may be 
supported when resumed, recommends any appropriate 
changes in the regimental scheme of antimechanized 
defense, and effects any changes ordered by the regi- 
mental commander. Upon approval, he issues the ap- 
propriate orders, and supervises their execution. If an 
attack is interrupted by darkness, elements of the anti- 
tank company are promptly disposed to cover the most 
favorable routes of approach for hostile armored vehicles 



76 



leading into the position occupied by the regiment. For 
conduct of the antitank company in defense, sec chapter 6. 

60. NIGHT ATTACK, o. For the general characteristics 
of night operations, see FM 100-5. For details of the 
employment of the rifle company, and of the infantry 
battalion and regiment in night attacks, see FM 7-10, 
7-30, and 7-40. 

b. Difficulty of maintaining direction and control 
makes it essential that a night attack be preceded by day- 
light reconnaissance and detailed plans and orders, es- 
pecially by subordinate commanders. Plans should pro- 
vide for the protection of attacking echelons against 
hostile mechanized counterattacks immediately upon 
capture of the objective, and for covering the withdrawal 
of the attacking units in case the attack is discovered and 
repulsed before the objective is reached. 

c. When one or more battalions are employed in a 
night attack, antitank company platoons may be at- 
tached. Provision is made for every eventuality which 
can reasonably be foreseen. The order of the battalion 
commander to antitank elements includes the initial 
firing position area (s) and principal directions of fire, 
or location of mobile position (s) if elements are to be 
held mobile; designation of elements to displace to the 
objective after its capture, time and method of displace- 
ment, new position area(s), and direction (s) of fire; 
and changes, if any, to be made prior to daylight by any 
elements not displacing to the objective. (See FM 7-30.) 

cf. When the objective is reached, immediate measures 
for the defense of the position are undertaken. Antitank 
guns are emplaced to cover likely approaches for hostile 
armored vehicles. Mines may also be employed to block 
these approaches. All defensive measures are checked. 

e. Rear elements move forward upon the prearranged 
signal announcing capture of the objective. All elements 



77 



should be in position by daylight. Final adjustments in 
antitank gun positions are made at dawn. 

61. ANTITANK COMPANY OF RESERVE REGIMENT. 

All or part of the antitank company of a reserve regi- 
ment may be detached temporarily for special missions. 
Typical examples are — 

o. Support of the leading regiments of the division 
in the initial stages of attack. 

b. Reinforcement of the division antimechanized de- 
fense to meet a serious mechanized threat. 

SECTION VI 
SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

62. ATTACK IN WOODS, o. For general considera- 
tions governing the conduct of an attack in woods, see 
FM 100-5, 7-30, and 7-40. For a discussion of jungle 
warfare, see FM 31-20. 

fa. During a daylight attack by the regiment against 
the near edge of a woods, the antitank company is em- 
ployed in a manner similar to that described in para- 
graphs 48 to 59, inclusive. If, as is frequently the case, 
the attack is made under cover of smoke or darkness, 
particular attention is devoted to approaches leading 
into the flanks or rear of the regimental zone of action. 

c. (i) During an attack through woods, the antitank 
platoons of the leading battalions provide frontal and 
Hank protection for the attacking echelon. The antitank 
platoon of the reserve battalion usually provides that 
battalion with the necessary close-in antimechanized pro- 
tection. Mine elements may be attached to leading bat- 
talions, or mines may be issued to the battalions for 
installation by battalion personnel. Owing to the short 



78 



fields of fire, rockets and antitank rifle grenades will be 
freely employed for antimechanized protection, both 
by leading battalions and antitank units, and in depth 
throughout the regiment. 

(2) The distribution of elements of the antitank com- 
pany will depend upon the possibility of hostile mech- 
anized attacks. A platoon of the regimental antitank 
company will usually be employed to protect a flank of 
the regiment which extends to or beyond the edge of 
the woods. In fairly open woods, in which most of the 
terrain is suitable for the approach of tanks but control 
of ground troops is difficult, a platoon from the anti- 
tank company will frequently be attached to each lead- 
ing battalion; that portion of the company remaining 
under regimental control will be used for protection of 
the flanks and rear. If the nature of the woods precludes 
hostile tank attack in one portion of the regimental 
icne, the bulk of the antitank company will be used for 
protection of the more exposed portion (s) . If the nature 
of the terrain and the number of guns available makes 
it impossible to cover the entire zone satisfactorily by 
any of the above methods, elements of the company may 
be held mobile. In an advance through thick woods 
which contain roads and clearings, antitank weapons 
may move forward by bounds to cover such possible 
avenues of approach, particularly those leading into the 
flanks of the zone of advance. This may be accomplished 
by leapfrogging by squads or larger elements of the 
company. 

(3) In an advance through woods, antitank platoons 
protecting the flanks move abreast of the regiment untiT 
the latter is held up by resistance, or halts for any other 
reason. Guns then occupy the most suitable firing posi- 
tions in their immediate vicinity and are held in readi- 
ness for immediate delivery of fire until the regiment 
resumes its advance. Antitank platoons protecting the 



79 



rear operate in a similar manner; formations are usually 
in line and with squads well separated. 
(4) Suitable routes for prime movers will usually be 
few in number, and frequently cannot be determined in 
advance. The company commander should therefore 
request blanket priority for movement of antitank ele- 
ments over all routes. 

. (5) All leaders must cope with the difficulty of main- 
taining direction, contact, and control, and of operating 
with short and obstructed fields of fire. Compass direc- 
tions of advance should usually be prescribed. Vigorous 
r reconnaissance for suitable routes for movements by 
prime mover, and for firing positions, must be con- 
ducted. Visual contact with adjacent units is maintained 
whenever practicable. In woods too dense to permit such 
visual contact to be maintained by available personnel, 
liaison agents from platoons may be stationed with 
nearby units of the regiment or with the company com- 
mander; each such agent should be accompanied by a 
messenger or provided with other means of communica- 
tion. Frequent reports from these liaison agents will 
assist platoons to maintain their place in the formation 
or to displace at the proper time from one avenue of 
tank approach to another. 

(6) The concealment afforded by woods offers oppor- 
tunity for surprise attack by hostile patrols or hostile 
elements by-passed by the leading rifle units. The com- 
pany commander should request the attachment of 
sufficient riflemen to provide additional close-in pro- 
tection for each gun. During movement by prime mover, 
gun crews should be formed into small dismounted 
patrols furnishing all around protection with their in- 
dividual weapons. 

d. The regiment is rapidly reorganized short of the 
far edge of the woods; it then continues its attack from 
the edge of the woods in generally the same manner as 

so 



for an attack in other open terrain. During the reor- 
ganization and subsequent attack, the antitank company 
is employed to reinforce the antimechanized defense of 
the leading battalions and provide additional protection 
on the flanks. Since the edge of a woods is a favorable 
target for hostile artillery, every effort is made to locate 
the initial firing positions as far within the woods as 
is practicable. These positions must permit effective fire 
to be delivered against hostile tanks which may attack 
while the exit is in progress. Firing lanes may be hastily 
prepared if time permits. All antitank gun elements 
should displace promptly to new positions outside the 
woods, as soon as such positions become available, 

63. ATTACK OF TOWNS, o. The" employment of the 
antitank company during the attack of the near edge 
of a town, and during the exit from the town, is similar 
to that described for an attack in woods and the exit 
therefrom. Frequently, platoons of the company will be 
employed to neutralize automatic weapons, located in 
fortified buildings and on the edge of the town, which 
have not been neutralized by artillerv. cannon company 
howitzers, or other supporting weapons. 

b. (1) In a large town (where the entire regimental 
zone of action lies within the town) , all around anti- 
mechanized protection is essential. Tanks can be readily 
concealed within the town, and may attack from several 
directions with little or no warning. Attacks against the 
flanks or rear are particularly likely if the regiment has 
progressed more rapidly than adjacent units. An anti- 
tank platoon is frequently attached to each leading 
battalion. The remaining antitank platoon (s) may be 
employed under the company commander to complete 
the all around protection of the reserve, the regimental 
command post, and other regimental installations and 
units. Frequently, the mine platoon is similarly divided 



81 



between the leading battalions and the reserve elements; 
in such a case, additional transportation will be re- 
quired. 

(a) Firing positions may be selected in buildings, taking 
advantage of doorways or of loopholes knocked in the 
walls; guns may also be placed in the debris of ruined 
buildings or behind street barricades. Since it is difficult 
for leading battalions to mop up completely as they 
advance, antitank units must be closely protected by 
riflemen, both while firing and while in movement. 

{3) Elements of the company employed in protecting 
the regimental reserve and installations can ordinarily 
use their vehicles in effecting displacements. The vehi- 
cles, protected by details of riflemen, are held in side 
streets, if necessary, in the shelter of buildings or other 
concealed positions, until needed. 

c. In a small town which lies entirely within the regi- 
mental zone of action, a portion of the regiment is 
usually assigned the mission of securing positions out- 
side the town, from which it can command the defenders' 
line of communications and prevent reinforcement or 
block retreat. Since this portion of the regiment is par- 
ticularly subject to armored attacks against its flanks 

and rear, the bulk of the antitank company, under con- 
trol of the company commander, will usually furnish 
protection against such attacks. Elements of the company 
may be attached to the units of the regiment actually 
advancing through the town. 

d. For further discussion see FM 100-5, 7 — ao > an d 
31-50. 

64. ATTACK OF RIVER LINE. o. For general principles 
governing operations at river lines, see FM 100-5. For 
technical details of stream crossing equipment and the 
use of assault boats, see TM 5-370. For expedients in 



83 



stream crossing, see appendix II, For the regiment in 
a Hack o£ a river line, see FM 7-40. 

b. The immediate object of the attack of a river line 
is the establishment of a bridgehead which will protect 
the crossing of the remainder of the command. River 
crossings by the regiment may be made under any of 
the following circumstances: 

(1) When the enemy is not actively holding the river 
line, or when his forces holding the river line are weak, 
and no defensive organization has been accomplished. 

(2) When mobile ground forces, or parachute units, 
precede the regiment in an effort to secure the far bank, 
and the regiment's effort consists of a prompt reinforce- 
ment of such forces. 

(3) When strong hostile forces, organized for defense, 
hold the far bank. (Sec FM 7-40.) 

c. When an attack by hostile armored forces on the 
near side of the river is possible, protection is usually 
provided by antitank units under the control of higher 
headquarters. However, if the enemy possesses mecha- 
nized units, tank attacks can be expected on the far bank 
after all or part of the regiment has crossed the river, 
and before sufficient fortes and materiel have been 
crossed to permit a bridgehead to be firmly established. 
Such attacks are most probable after leading units have 
pushed forward so far from the river that cannon com- 
pany weapons and artillery on the near side can no 
longer deliver effective fire against tanks attacking these 
units, and before bridges or rafts can be constructed to 
displace this heavy materiel across the river. All bat- 
talion and regimental antitank units must therefore be 
moved across at the earliest practicable moment after 
the leading units have seized the far bank, in order 
to be properly disposed to protect the regiment during 
this critical period. 



83 



d. In order to seize a crossing or crossings not neicl 
by enemy forces, or weakly held, and with no defensive 
organization accomplished, the regimental commander 
organizes and dispatches one or more motorized detach- 
ments to precede the advance of the regiment. These 
detachments should be strong enough to hold the cross- 
ings against any enemy forces known to be capable of 
intervening before the arrival of the remainder of the 
regiment. The bulk of the antitank company will usually 
be attached to such motorized detachments, frequently, 
the entire company will be attached. Upon arrival at 
the river, supporting weapons, including the bulk of the 
antitank guns, may be placed in suitable firing positions 
on the near bank in order to protect the leading units 
while the latter cross the river and initiate their advance 
from the far bank. This action is usually taken when 
the river is not too wide, and suitable firing positions 
are readily available, even though the opposite bank is 
believed to be unoccupied. Antitank guns are usually 
the first supporting weapons moved across the river be- 
hind the leading rifle units. If there is no bridge, and 
ponton rafts or other engineer crossing means are not 
promptly provided, improvised methods of crossing must 
be employed. (See app. IT.) 

e. When the far bank of the river has already been 
seized by units preceding the regiment, antitank guns 
are seldom placed in position on the near bank. After 
crossing, die employment of the company is similar to 
that for any other attack except that, at least initially, 
the supply of ammunition may be restricted by the 
necessity for moving it across the river by boats or rafts. 

f. (i) When strong hostile forces, organized for de- 
fense, hold the far bank, the regiment forces a crossing 
on a broad front, usually with either one or two bat- 
talions in the attacking echelon. Ordinarily, at least one 
antitank platoon and an element of the mine platoon 



84 



are attached to each leading battalion. The leaders of 
these attached elements should join the respective bat- 
talion commanders as soon as regimental orders for the 
attachment arc received. While reconnaissance and other 
preparations for the crossing are in progress, battalions 
occupy initial assembly areas located far enough from 
the river to be out of range of hostile light artillery. 
They move from these initial assembly areas to final 
assembly areas near the river under cover of darkness. 
To avoid confusion, elements of the antitank company 
attached to battalions should join these in the initial 
assembly areas well in advance of the time of departure 
therefrom. 

(2) All elements of the antitank company may be at- 
tached initially to the leading battalion (s) . Usually, 
however, a portion of the company is held under con- 
trol of the company commander. It is moved across the 
river at the earliest practicable moment after the crossing 
of the leading battalion (s) is completed. Ordinarily, its 
first employment after reaching the far bank is to provide 
close-in antimechanized protection for the area in which 
the regimental reserve is to assemble. If the crossing is 
10 be made at dawn, or in daylight, and the river is not 
too wide, the guns may be placed initially in firing 
positions on the near bank to assist in covering the 
crossing of the leading elements by direct fire at hostile 
automatic weapons. If not so employed, this portion 
of the company is moved under cover of darkness into 
a concealed and defiladed final assembly area near the 
river and held mobile under cover, until the time for 
crossing. Daylight reconnaissance and marking of the 
final assembly area or firing positions, and of the routes 
thereto, is essential. 

(3) Prior to leaving the initial assembly area, the com- 
pany commander issues orders to that portion of the 



35 



company remaining under his control. These orders 
should cover— 

(«) Mission, firing position area, sector of responsi- 
bility and principal direction of fire for each platoon or 
element which is to occupy firing positions on the near 
bant, including the conditions under which fire is to 
be opened. 

(b) Final assembly area (if to be occupied) . 

(c) Time and place oE crossing for each subordinate 
unit. 

(d) Detailed instructions as to the means by which 
each subordinate unit is to make the crossing. 

(e) Instructions for the disposition of motor vehicles 
which arc not to cross with their units. 

(/) Initial mission of each subordinate unit after 
crossing the river, to include the initial firing position 
area, sector of responsibility, and principal direction of 
fire. 

(g) Secrecy measures. 

(h) Instructions concerning ammunition supply and 
evacuation of casualties. 

(t) Means of communication. Location of the com- 
pany commander on the near bank, his time of crossing-, 
and his location immediately after crossing. 
(4) Elements of the antitank company attached to lead- 
ing battalions may revert to company control as soon 
as the first- objective of the regiment has been gained. 
This objective ordinarily is a position the occupation of 
which will secure the crossing against effective hostile 
small-arms fire. Thereafter, the company is employed to 
reinforce the mechanized defense of leading battalions, 
and to protect the flanks of the regiment, as in other 
attacks. 

{5) Elements of die mine platoon may be attached to 
units in the attacking echelon to assist in blocking the 
approaches of enemy armored vehicles attempting to 



36 



attack the bridgehead. Mines are of particular impor- 
tance in supplementing other elements of antimecha- 
nized defense on the flanks of the attacking troops as 
these troops advance inland from the river bank. Since 
the number of mines which can be transported by hand 
in such a situation is necessarily small, their immediate 
use may be to furnish protection to the antitank guns 
of the attackers. Personnel of the mine platoon may 
function as rocket teams until mines can be brought 
across the river in greater numbers. 

65. ATTACK OF FORTIFIED POSITION, a. For a 

general discussion of the employment of infantry in an 
attack against a fortified position, see FM joo-5. For 
employment of the battalion and regiment in such an 
attack, see FM 7—20, 7-40, and 31-50. 

b. The antitank company is employed to reinforce the 
antimechanized defense of leading battalions, and to 
protect the flanks and rear of the regiment, substantially 
as in other daylight attacks. Additional features fre- 
quently connected with such an operation are— 

(1) Inclusion in the regimental and company orders of 
a considerable amount of detail relating to the conduct 
of the company and platoons, respectively. 

(2) Assignment of missions involving firing against em- 
brasures, loopholes and other openings in fortifications. 

(3) Several rehearsals of the initial phases of the attack. 
Sufficient time for such rehearsals will ordinarily be 
available. 

c. When contact has been established, antitank guns 
will normally execute the firing missions . described in 
(s) above. Ffowever, once the hostile fortified position 
has been penetrated, repeated counterattacks by hostile 
armored units and infantry must be expected. Ordi- 
narily, the enemy will have prepared these counter- 
attacks in great detail in advance. Initially, while the 



87 



penetration is shallow, fires supplementing those of the 
leading battalion (s) against automatic weapons and 
other point targets will be the primary mission of the 
antitank company. As the penetration deepens, counter- 
attacks on the regimental flanks are to be expected, and 
antimechanized protection of these flanks may become 
the primary mission. Since these prepared counterattacks 
may be launched with great speed, displacements to cap- 
tured terrain masks must be effected with the minimum 
delay. Hasty mine fields or road blocks may be employed 
to delay such counterattacks. 

66. RAIDS. Raids are made to capture prisoners, capture 
or destroy materiel, obtain information, inspire confi- 
dence and aggressiveness in the raiding troops, and 
harass the enemy. They are usually made by a battalion 
or smaller element of the regiment, employing hit-and- 
run tactics. (See par. 203.) Elements of the antitank 
company may be employed to protect the flanks or rear 
of the raiding force against armored attacks. Antitank 
elements may also reinforce fires of other supporting 
elements by direct fire on located point targets. They 
may be employed either under regimental control, or 
attached to the raiding force. 

67. DESERT OPERATIONS, a. Deserts vary greatly in 
character. The surfaces may consist of loose sand and 
sand dunes, over which the movement of motor ve- 
hicles is greatly impeded, or it may be hard enough to 
permit free movement of mechanical transport at con- 
siderable speed. There are seldom any well-defined 
roads; trails often exist between water sources. Because 
there are few landmarks, maintenance of direction is 
often difficult. Mirage is a constant source of error. 
Distances are deceptive and are usually underestimated. 
When the surface consists of loose sand, operations will 



BS 



probably involve chiefly the use of foot troops and ani- 
mals. In such operations, the use of antitank elements 
may be restricted because of reduction in the speed of 
vehicles and added difficulties of movement and supply. 
Operations on hard surfaces will probably involve the 
employment of motorized and mechanized forces. In 
such operations, weapons of the antitank company can 
furnish powerful support both offensively and defen- 
sively because of their mobility and flexibility of their 
fires. 

b. Desert movements require strong all around secur- 
ity forces. Elements of the antitank company are fre- 
quently attached to the advance, flank and rear guards; 
their employment is similar to that on corresponding 
missions on ordinary terrain. 

c. Lack of natural concealment places special empha- 
sis on dispersion, deception, camouflage, and proper 
employment of active measures for security. Since attacks 
may come from the air or from any direction on the 
ground, the protective measures taken should insure 
that— 

(1) Air-antitank guards and ground patrols, provided 
with adequate signal communication equipment (radio 
and /or radiotelephone) , are posted so as to give early 
warning oi an impending attack. An air-antitank guard 
is designated for every vehicle on the move, and as 
required at the halt, 

(2) Gun crews are in constant readiness for immediate 
action. 

(3) Vehicles are dispersed in width and depth. 

(4) Antiaircraft weapons (caliber .50 machine guns) 
are constantly manned and prepared for immediate lire. 

(5) Strict discipline as to lights, direction, and rate of 
movement is maintained. 



89 



<J. Support of an attack will, in general, be similar 
to that indicated, in section V of this chapter, 
e. For further details, see FM 31-25. 

68. TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT IN ESTABLISHMENT 
OF BEACHHEAD, a. In the establishment of a beach- 
head, the antitank company is employed in a manner 
similar to that in the establishment of a bridgehead in 
a river crossing. The priority of landing of the guns 
depends upon the likelihood of mechanized counter- 
attack, and upon whether the guns are to be employed 
against targets other than armored vehicles. 

b. Prior reconnaissance, other than by map and aerial 
photo, is often impracticable. Once ashore, reconnais- 
sance will be promptly and vigorously conducted. 

c. Owing to the difficulties of supply, reinforcement, 
and of the landing itself under varying conditions o£ 
weather, visibility, and enemy resistance, the closest co- 
ordination must be effected in advance between the anti- 
tank elements and the units which they support. 

69. MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS. Mountain operations 
are characterized by the difficulties which the terrain 
offers to movement. Likely approaches for hostile arm- 
ered vehicles are, in general, restricted to roads and 
trails. Antitank units may be employed to defend or 
btock such approaches, especially passes or other defiles, 
both by gun fire and mines. For a discussion of moun- 
tain warfare, see FM 100-5, 



90 



CHAPTER 6 
DEFENSIVE COMBAT 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

70. REFERENCES. For the fundamental doctrines cover- 
ing defensive combat, see FM 100-5. For general doctrines 
governing defensive combat by the infantry regiment 
and battalion, see FM 7-40 and 7-20, respectively, .or 
data pertaining to field fortifications, see FM 5-15. i ! "or 
signal communication and combat intelligence, see I'M 
7-25. For supply, see FM 7~ 3°- 

71. DEFENSIVE DOCTRINES. The general object of 
defensive combat is to gain time pending the develop- 
ment of more favorable conditions for undertaking the 
offensive, or to economize forces on one front for the 
purpose of concentrating superior forces for a decision 
elsewhere. The organization of a principal defensive 
position presupposes determination to hold at all costs. 
Defensive considerations require a determined defense 
of certain key terrain, the loss of which would endanger 
the entire defensive position. In order to make the de- 
fense strong against hostile armored attack, not only 
must full advantage be taken of natural antitank obsta- 

»1 



cles, but antitank mines and other artificial obstacles 
may also be installed so as to divert hostile armored 
vehicles from favorable avenues of approach and into 
areas which can be effectively covered by the bulk of 
the available antitank weapons. 

72. MISSION. The principal mission o£ the antitank 
company of a regiment defending a sector of the battle 
oosition is to reinforce or add depth to the antimechan- 
ized defense provided by the organic antitank weapons 
of front-line battalions, and to protect the flanks, and, 
if necessary, the rear, of the regimental sector. 

SECTION II 
EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE 

73. SUPPORT OF OUTPOST, a. General Outposf. 

The general outpost may be established and controlled 
by higher authority, or it may be furnished by front- 
line infantry regiments, and its actions coordinated by 
higher authority. Its mission is to provide time for the 
main force to prepare itself for combat, to deceive the 
enemy as to the location of the battle position, and to 
delay and disorganize his advance. When a regiment 
furnishes an outpost for a larger force, a portion of the 
guns of the antitank company, and all or part of the 
mine platoon are usually attached. A battalion assigned 
to the general outpost is frequently given a delaying 
mission; one or more elements of the antitank company 
may be attached to that battalion. For employment of 
the antitank company in a delaying action, see para- 
graph 90. 

b. Combat Outpost. Combat outposts, detailed from 
each front-line battalion in the battle position, cover the 



*2 



foreground of the battle position when the general out- 
post is at a considerable distance from the main line of 
resistance, when the enemy situation prevents the estab- 
lishment of a general outpost, or when battle is inter- 
rupted by nightfall. The mission of combat outposts is 
to provide security of a more local nature than that pro- 
vided by the general outpost or, when there are no 
friendly troops to their front, to perform those duties of 
the general outpost which their strength and location 
permit. When the combat outpost is located on terrain 
which permits of effective antitank fire, and covered 
routes of withdrawal are available, antitank elements 
may be included. The withdrawal of antitank elements 
is initiated in time for them to occupy firing positions 
supporting the regimental defense area before the hostile 
attack strikes the main line of resistance. 

74. TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS, o. Frequently, one 
platoon of the regimental antitank company is employed 
to reinforce or add depdi to the antimechanized defenses 
of each front-line battalion, and provide protection to 
its flanks (see fig. is). However, this distribution is not 
invariable. If the nature of the terrain makes a strong 
hostile armored attack against a given battalion unlikely, 
an antitank element, if so employed, may be smaller 
than a platoon. 

b. The remaining guns of the company ate assigned 
firing positions from which they may limit hostile 
mechanized penetrations of forward areas, and provide 
protection against attacks striking deep on the flanks or 
from the rear. They may initially be held mobile, in a 
concealed and centrally located area. However, as soon 
as the direction and strength of a mechanized attack 
becomes known, guns held mobile must occupy previ- 
ously reconnoitered and prepared firing positions from 
which to meet this attack. Although located in firing posi- 

93 




Figure 12. Antitank platoon of antitank company reinforcing the antimechanised 
defence &f a front-line battalion. Regimental antitank guns, from positions in 
the rear, limit the advance of hostile tunics which penetrate front-line defenses, 
supplement, where the range permits, the famxtrd antimechanized defense, 
furnish antimechanised protection to the flanks and rear x and assist in the co- 
trrdination of fires with adjacent mutt, 

94 



tions with assigned sectors of responsibility, certain desig- 
nated guns should be prepared to move to previously 
reconnoitered and prepared firing positions to meet an 
armored threat in some other sector of the regimental 
defense area. 

c. Guns of the antitank company, attached initially 
to outposts established by the regiment or by battalions, 
withdraw when so directed by the outpost commander. 
Upon completion of the withdrawal, they revert to con- 
trol of the antitank company commander, who utilizes 
them in previously determined areas of the defense 
position. 

75. USE OF ANTITANK MINES, o. The use of antitank 
mines is coordinated with natural and other artificial 
obstacles, and with the employment of battalion and 
regimental antitank guns and other weapons, to provide 
all around antitank protection. Mines are laid to divert 
or prohibit the movement of hostile mechanized units 
in certain areas, and force them into areas more effec- 
tively covered by antitank gun fire. 

b. Outpost lines of resistance may be strengthened by 
the use of mines; these arc left in place when the outpost 
troops are forced to withdraw. 

c. In a defensive situation, a large number of antitank 
mines should be available. This permits of the establish- 
ment of much more extensive mine fields than is prac- 
ticable in other situations. Mine fields may be laid not 
only across likely avenues of tank approach to the main 
line of resistance, but in depth throughout, the regi- 
mental sector to prevent tanks which penetrate the front 
line from maneuvering freely in rear thereof. Mine fields 
widiin the defensive position should, if possible, be so 
placed as to supplement existing natural obstacles in 
providing all around protection for individual areas of 
resistance. The responsibility for laying these fields, as 



95 



well as those in front of the position, may be delegated 
to front-line battalions. Mine fields within the defense 
area must be laid in accordance with the regimental 
scheme of antimechanized defense. Upon completion, a 
report should be submitted to the antitank company 
commander. (See fig. 23 and par. 16a.) 

cf. Mine fields should be laid in a zone roughly from 
50 to 500 yards (effective small-arms range) from the 
organized and occupied portions of defended localities. 
Mine fields and exposed personnel, weapons, or installa- 
tions should be at least 100 yards apart. Mine fields 
should not be laid across areas to be covered by the 
close-in defense fires of supporting artillery and mortars. 
(See also par. 166.) 

e. When the regimental commander allots prescribed 
quantities of mines to front-line battalions, the mine 
platoon delivers these mines to specified locations, and 
lays, or assists in laying, the mines in accordance with 
instructions issued by the battalion commanders. At 
other times, when the division engineer has been made 
responsible for the laying of all mines in the division 
area, the mine platoon may operate under his direction. 
When neither of these conditions applies, the mine 
platoon lays mines under company control in accordance 
with the regimental plan for antimechanized defense. 

f. For further details, see chapter 9. 

76. ACTION BY COMPANY COMMANDER PRIOR 
TO OCCUPATION OF REGIMENTAL SECTOR, a. 

Prior to occupation of a regimental sector of a battle 
position, the antitank company commander formulates 
and recommends a plan for regimental antimechanized 
defense. The procedure which he follows includes— 

(1) Making a map study and tentative plan for defense. 

(2) Providing for the forward movement of the com- 
pany. 

96 



(3) Designating the time and place tor the issuance ot 
the company order. 

(4) Planning the ground reconnaissance and conferring 
with higher and adjacent commanders, regimental lS-2, 
and battalion staff officers. 

(5) Cnecking t,hc tentative plan by a personal recon- 
naissance of the ground. 

(6) Completing and submitting to the regimental com- 
mander his plan for the antimechanized defense of the 
regimental sector. 

b. When time is available, the antitank company com- 
mander will usually accompany the regimental com- 
mander on reconnaissance; he may, however, be directed 
to execute an independent reconnaissance. In the latter 
case, selected members of the company may accompany 
him. Lack of time may frequently require the issuance 
of fragmentary orders and hasty occupation of a position 
without prior detailed reconnaissance. 

77. RECONNAISSANCE, PLANS AND ORDERS, a. 

Reconnaissance. (1) The reconnaissance should cover 
the regimental sector and adjacent areas, and is usually 
made in the following sequence: the foreground, the 
interior, the flanks in order of vulnerability, and the 
rear. The reconnaissance of the foreground of the sector 
is roade to determine likely avenues of tank approach, 
and locations in which mines can be effectively em- 
ployed, and other antitank obstacles constructed or im- 
proved. The reconnaissance of the interior of the sector 
is made to determine likely areas for hostile tank pene- 
tj a i ion and positions from which antitank guns can 
Over these areas and the flanks and rear of the regiment. 
In the reconnaissance of the flanks, the exchange of in- 
formation should be effected with adjacent regimental 
commanders or their agents for the coordination of anti- 
tank defense between regiments. An exterior regiment 



97 



should consider the exposed flank as part of the fore- 
ground. Reconnaissance of the rear includes the ex- 
change of information with commanders or agents of 
reserve units. The company commander submits his 
recommendations for antimechanized defense during, or 
immediately after, this reconnaissance. If he accompanies 
the regimental commander on reconnaissance, he will 
often be sufficiently acquainted with the regimental pJan 
of defense to be released without waiting for the issuance 
of the regimental order. 

(2) Additional reconnaissance may be necessary in order 
to determine more definitely the locations of firing posi- 
tion areas, as well as to select uncoupling positions and 
routes thereto, the company observation post (s) and 
the company ammunition supply point. Much of this 
reconnaissance will frequently be delegated to the recon- 
naissance officer and his assistants. 

(3) When necessity for immediate occupation of the 
position precludes prior ground reconnaissance, the regi- 
mental commander will assign the company general 
missions, and areas into which to move the vehicles and 
guns. The company commander then selects platoon 
firing position areas, or positions of units to be held 
mobile, and prescribes platoon missions. Since speed is 
essential, all practicable steps are taken to expedite the 
occupation of - positions. The company commander 
promptly inspects the dispositions of the company, and 
directs such changes as are necessary to provide adequate 
all around antimechanized defense of the regimental 
sector. 

b. Plans. (1) A plan for the antimechanized defense 
of the regimental sector should include— 

(a) Employment of mines, and construction or im- 
provement of other antitank obstacles. 

(b) Employment of the antitank platoons of the com- 



96 



pany, including attachment of any elements to outposts 
■established by the regiment or battalions. 

(c) Coordination with the howitzer officer for em- 
ployment of cannon company weapons to supplement 
the fires of antitank guns, whenever necessary, 
(2) The company commander prepares the antitank fire 
plan at the earliest practicable moment, and submits it, 
usually in the form of an overlay, to the regimental com- 
mander for approval. This plan shows the location of 
all mine fields and other antitank obstacles, both natural 
and artificial, together with the primary, supplementary, 
and alternate positions, and the principal and supple- 
mentary directions of fire of all antitank guns, including 
those of battalions and adjacent units, so far as they im- 
mediately affect the antimechanized defense of the regi- 
mental sector. It also indicates guns designated by front- 
line battalion commanders to open fire on hostile armored 
vehicles engaged on reconnaissance or acting as decoys. 
(See FM 7-20.) The plan is reviewed and modified as 
necessary by the regimental commander to insure — 

(a) That the fires of regimental and battalion anti- 
tank weapons are coordinated primarily for defense of 
the forward portion of the battle position. 

(b) That provision is made to meet mechanized 
threats from the flanks and rear. 

(t) That all antitank fires are coordinated, for all 
around defense, with mine fields and other natural and 
artificial antitank obstacles, and with the fires of antitank 
weapons of adjacent units. 

C. Orders. (1) POINT OF ISSUANCE. After receiv- 
ing the regimental defense order, the company com- 
mander issues the company defense order. This may be 
done by assembling the platoon leaders at one location 
for the issuance of a complete order or conducting them 
to the areas their respective platoons are to occupy, and 
there issuing the order; when time is limited, he may 



99 



use his reconnaissance officer to conduct one or more 
platoon leaders to the area (s) to be occupied and there 
issue the order or the platoon (s) . To avoid delay in the 
occupation and organization of the position, the order 
may be issued in fragmentary form. Orders are issued 
in time to enable platoon leaders to reconnoiter assigned 
firing position areas, effect dispositions, and initiate con- 
struction of emplacements without delay. 
(2) CONTENTS. The defense order covers— 

(a) Necessary information of the_ enemy and of 
friendly troops to include— 

Types of enemy tanks operating in the vicinity. 
2, Proposed movement and plan of action of 
friendly tanks operating in the vicinity, 
their identifying marks, and signals. 
5. The challenge signal (if prescribed) to be used 
in requiring that tanks believed to be 
friendly identify themselves. 
4. Location of nearby antitank guns of other 
units, and of known mine fields and anti- 
tank obstacles. 
(£>) Regimental sector of defense, trace of the main 
- line of resistance, missions of the company. 

(c) Instructions to each antitank platoon to cover— 

Firing position areas, sector of responsibility, 
and principal direction of Fire, 
2. Construction (to include priorities) of em- 
placements, measures for concealment and 
camouflage, location and construction of 
■ dummy emplacements, 
•y. Conditions governing opening of fire. 
4. Coordination with nearby antitank and other 
units. 

(d) Instructions to the mine platoon to include loca- 
tion of mine fields or road blocks to be laid by the mine 
platoon, any special instructions covering the laying or 

too 



guarding of mines or assistance to front-line battalions 
in laying mines, reconnaissance and other preparations 
for laying additional mine fields, location of the mine 
platoon upon completion of its tasks. 

(e) Instructions for the conduct of each individual in 
case hostile parachutists or other troops reach the firing 
positions. 

(/) Ammunition supply, quantities to be placed at 
firing positions, location of company ammunition supply 
point, instructions for disposition of vehicles. 

(g) Location of regimental and battalion aid stations. 

(h) Provisions for signal communication, details of 
warning system not covered in prior instructions, perti- 
nent extracts from signal operation instructions such as 
call names, frequencies, prearranged message code, map 
coordinate code, and pyrotechnic signals; location of 
regimental, battalion, and antitank company command 
posts; location of company commander. 

78. OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATION OF FIR. 
ING POSITIONS. Upon arrival at the firing position, 
each gun is concealed and camouflaged in a temporary 
firing position, and prepared to open fire at once to 
cover its assigned sector. 

a. Unless otherwise prescribed, work is immediately 
commenced on primary emplacements, and, when these 
are completed, on their alternate emplacements. Sup- 
plementary emplacements and their alternate emplace- 
ments are ordinarily next in priority. Fox holes are dug. 
Dummy works may be prepared concurrently with work 
on true positions. Tools and materials made available 
by the regimental commander are allotted in accordance 
with the amount and urgency of the work to be done. 

b. The company commander inspects the dispositions, 
and makes any necessary changes.. (See par. 77a (3) .) 



101 



c. When the work is completed, guns and personnel 
occupy cover positions, unless terrain or reduced visi- 
bility necessitates occupation of firing positions. Ob- 
servers are posted. 

79. CONDUCT OF DEFENSE, o. Early warning of a 
mechanized attack is essential to the conduct of the 
defense, in order that the antitank weapons may be 
moved to firing positions in time to meet the attack 
with effective fire. The vehicular radio of the antitank 
company is ordinarily included in the division warning 
net, as part of the regimental warning service established 
by S-2. (Sec par. 13.) Every available means must be 
utilized to insure prompt transmission to all elements 
of the company of any warning of the approach of 
armored vehicles. Antitank g;m crews and observers im- 
mediately take, their posts. Communications are retested. 
Personnel take advantage of emplacements and indi- 
vidual fox holes during hostile artillery preparations, 
aerial attack, or other preparatory fires. 

b. The fires of the antitank guns should be withheld 
until hostile tanks reach the range or the points desig- 
nated by the company commander for opening of fire. 
Gun crews must not be deceived into opening fire on 
decoy vehicles, thus prematurely revealing their positions 
unless their gun (s) has been specifically designated to 
fire on such vehicles. If not designated by the company 
commander, platoon leaders designate for each gun 
certain terrain features which hostile tanks are to cross, 
or pass, before fire is opened, 

c. When necessary, the company commander should 
recommend changes in the initial plan of antimechanized 
defense to meet new situations. Such changes should not 
contemplate any use of the antitank platoons of front- 
line battalions, or of elements of the antitank company, 
which would unduly weaken the defense against a frontal 



102 



attack. By active supervision, the company commander 
should coordinate and expedite the movement of all 
units displacing to repel hostile mechanized attack (s) , 
and insure that their fires are so coordinated as to con- 
tinue the all around antimechanized defense. 

d. In the event that one or more of the battalion anti- 
tank guns are put out of action, guns of the antitank 
company may be employed to fire on appropriate targets 
in the sectors thus left undefended. 

80. CLOSE-IN DEFENSE AGAINST MECHANIZED AT- 
TACK. For action in close-in defense against mechanized 
attack, see paragraph 15. 

81. POSITION AND DUTIES OF COMPANY COM- 
MANDER DURING HOSTILE ATTACK. The company 
commander ordinarily occupies his observation post dur- 
ing the hostile attack. From this point, assisted by the 
reconnaissance officer, reconnaissance sergeant, and such 
other observers as he may designate, he maintains con- 
stant observation over the conduct of the antitank fires 
in order to keep both himself and the regimental com- 
mander informed of the situation, and to be prepared to 
make any necessary changes in fire missions or disposi- 
tions. Communication between the company observation 
post and the platoons is insured by the use of all avail- 
able means. (See par. 3b.) 

82. SUPPORT OF COUNTERATTACK. A counterattack 
executed by the reserve either of a front line battalion or 
of the regiment is supported. by elements of the antitank 
company, which fire at antitank weapons, automatic 
weapons, groups "of enemy personnel offering remunera- 
tive targets, and observation posts. This support is co- 
ordinated by the antitank company commander in ac- 
cordance with orders of the regimental commander. If 



103 



enemy armored vehicles make their appearance, antitank 
elements revert to their primary mission of destroying 
or neutralizing such vehicles, 

83. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. The company commander 
exercises continuous supervision over ammunition sup- 
ply. His prior arrangements should enable him to re- 
plenish promptly the ammunition of any elements of 
the company whose supply becomes seriously depleted. 
Upon occupation of the position; prime movers and 
regimental train vehicles are unloaded in covered and 
concealed locations as close as practicable to localities 
where their loads are to be used. As soon as the vehicles 
are unloaded, they are withdrawn to* the rear, at which 
time prime movers and regimental train vehicles revert 
to company and regimental control, respectively. Re- 
plenishment of ammunition on the position will usually 
be effected under cover of darkness. Movement of vehi- 
cles at night is made without lights. Supply vehicles are 
returned to the rear area prior to daylight. For further 
details, see paragraph si. 

84. ANTIAIRCRAFT SECURITY. For antiaircraft secur- 
ity, see paragraphs 13 and 14. Additional security may 
be provided by nearby heavy machine-gun and rifle, 
elements. 

85. ANTITANK UNITS OF RESERVE REGIMENT. Re- 
serves of a division or larger force held out for counter- 
attack may include infantry, tank or armored force 
units, and tank destroyer units. Antitank units of a 
reserve regiment are assigned definite missions in ac- 
cordance with the division plan of antimechanized de- 
fense. These missions, in addition to providing protec- 
tion for the assembly area of the reserve regiment, may 
include the defense of avenues of approach leading into 



104 



die rear areas of forward regiments. Exceptionally, these 
antitank units may reinforce the antitank defense of 
forward regiments. 

SECTION III 
RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS 

86. REFERENCES. For the general doctrines covering 
retrograde movements see FM 100-5. For details of 
operation of supply and evacuation of the regiment, see 
FM 7-30. For details of operation of signal communi- 
cation and intelligence, see FM 7-25. For conduct of the 
regiment in a withdrawal, see FM 7-40. 

87. WITHDRAWAL, a. A withdrawal from action is the 
operation of breaking off combat with a hostile force. 
It may be followed by a retirement, or by the occupation 
of a rear position, or area, from which subsequent offen- 
sive or defensive action will be conducted. Withdrawals 
are classified as night withdrawals or daylight with- 
drawals, according to when the movement is begun. 
Since daylight withdrawals usually result in excessive 
losses, withdrawals should, whenever practicable, be 
effected under cover of darkness. (See FM 7-40.) 

b. Any order for a withdrawal must be carefully 
verified. 

88. NIGHT WITHDRAWAL a. Upon receipt of the 
regimental warning order for a night withdrawal, the 
company commander issues warning orders to the 
platoons, and promptly initiates reconnaissance of the 
company assembly area and route (s) of withdrawal of 
the regiment, and of the rearward defensive position, 
if one is to be occupied. Time for a reconnaissance by 



105 



daylight is ordinarily available. Since the company com- 
mander should remain with his unit while a defensive 
action is in progress, this reconnaissance will usually be 
delegated to the reconnaissance officer or the second-in- 
command, assisted by other selected personnel. The com- 
pany commander's recommendations for the protection 
of the withdrawal, based on a map study and on reports 
received from reconnaissance personnel, should be sub- 
mitted in time to be acted upon prior to the commence- 
ment of the withdrawal. Ordinarily, these recommenda- 
tions should include provisions for the protection of 
defiles and the establishment of mined or other road 
blocks on roads intersecting the route of withdrawal. 

b. Ordinarily, no elements of the company are left 
with the covering force. The regiment, less the covering 
force, withdraws, assembles, and marches to the rear. 
During the march to the rear, antimechanized protection 
of any rear position which is to be occupied is similar to 
that of other defensive positions. While at a rear posi- 
tion oh reconnaissance the reconnaissance personnel 
confer with the representatives of battalions in order to 
coordinate plans for the antimechanized defense of the 
position. They select firing positions, locations for mines 
or other obstacles, and routes thereto, secure approval 
of these positions and locations by the representative of 
the regimental commander at the rear position, and mark 
them or otherwise make provisions for their ready identi- 
fication during darkness. 

c. Vehicles are brought forward, after dark, to the 
company assembly area. Prime movers are then moved as 
close to firing positions as the tactical situation, including 
the requirements for secrecy, will permit; if practicable, 
their location is immediately in rear of the first crest 
behind the firing positions. All movements after dark 
should be made quietly and without lights; radio silence 
may be prescribed. Such elements of the company as are 



106 



located in battalion defense areas are ordinarily attached 
to those battalions for the initial phases of the with- 
drawal, reverting to company control in the company 
assembly area. From this location the company may 
be required to proceed to a regimental assembly area. 
Frequently, however, it is directed to precede die regi- 
ment, either to a rear defensive position or to establish 
firing positions and road blocks protecting the route (s) 
of withdrawal. As the elements of the company reach 
the rear position (if one is to be occupied) , they are 
met by members of the reconnaissance detail and guided 
to their firing positions. (See FM 7—40.) 

tf. (i) If considerable amounts of antitank ammuni- 
tion remain in the forward area when a withdrawal is 
contemplated, the regimental commander may instruct 
the regimental S-4 to make arrangements for its removal. 
As much of the ammunition as can be carried on the 
prime movers should be removed when guns are with- 
drawn from their firing positions. In order to provide 
space for extra ammunition, some of the members of 
the squad may be required to proceed to the rear on 
foot, with the rifle elements in whose areas they are 
initially located, rejoining their squads in the rear de- 
fensive position or assembly area. Provisions should be 
made for the destruction of any ammunition which can- 
not be removed. 

{2) The plan of ammunition supply on the new posi- 
tion will be determined by the mission and the tactical, 
situation. 

e. The occupation and construction of firing posi- 
tions, and the laying of antitank mines, should be con- 
ducted as prescribed in the occupation of a battle posi- 
tion. Daylight must find the guns in their new firing 
position areas ready for action against mechanized at- 
tack. 



tor 



89. DAYLIGHT WITHDRAWAL (sec fig. 13) . a. In 
order to control the withdrawal of forward battalions, 
the regimental commander may assign zones of with- 
drawal and phase lines. When phase lines have been 
designated, the battalion commander designates the first 
phase line as the battalion assembly area; otherwise, he 
designates the first suitable delaying position in rear 
of the regimental covering force as the assembly area. 
Subordinate units move directly to the assembly area and 
occupy it as for a delaying action. (See par. 90.) Further 
movement to the rear is executed as directed by the 
regimental commander. 

b. In a daylight withdrawal the bulk of the com- 
pany antitank guns and all or part of the mine platoon 
are usually attached by regimental order to the cov- 
ering force and to any flank guards established by the 
regiment. (See FM 7-40.) The remaining elements of 
the company, if any, are employed to reinforce the pro- 
tection provided by battalion antitank platoons during 
the further movement of the regiment to the rear, and 
during the occupation and organization of any rear 
defensive position (s) . 

c. Antiaircraft security is obtained through the use 
of dispersed formations by all units. For further details, 
see paragraph 14. 

o\ Upon receipt of the regimental order for the widi- 
drawal, the company commander promptly designates 
the elements of the company to be attached to security 
forces, and issues the necessary orders. When movement 
of these elements is necessary, the orders announce the 
place (s) at which they are to report to the units to 
which attached, the time movements are to commence, 
and the time they are to be completed. Instructions as to 
the method (s) of movement may be included. He also 
dispatches reconnaissance personnel to reconnoiter 



103 



route (s) of withdrawal, and any designated rear de- 
fensive position. 

e. The company commander, assisted by designated 
mgmberS of his command group, closely supervises the 
forward movement of prime movers. This movement is 
made by infiltration as rapidly as possible, and by in- 
dividual vehicles if time permits; otherwise, in small 
groups. Prime movers are brought as close to firing posi- 
tions as practicable. Ammunition is kept mobile; only 
that sufficient for estimated needs is placed at firing 
positions. 

f. Elements of the company located in battalion de- 
fense areas are attached to those battalions for the 
initial phases of the withdrawal. Elements to be attached 
to the covering force or flank guards are released from 
attachment to battalions as they reach the areas occupied 
by tfie covering force or flank guards, and should then 
be guided to previously reconnoitered positions. Anti- 
mechanized protection for the regiment (less security 
forces) , during movement to the rear, is provided as 
for a route march or approach march. The action of 
antitank company elements attached to security forces 
is conducted as for a delaying action. 

g. In a daylight withdrawal, all security elements, 
including the covering force, must be prepared to lay 
and defend hasty mine fields and road blocks. Attached 
elements from the antitank company may be directed to 
employ their guns and rocket launchers in the defense 
of such obstacles. 

h. Destruction of materiel subject to capture is a 
command decision, and will be undertaken only when 
in the judgment of the division or higher commander 
such action is necessary. For methods of destruction of 
guns and vehicles, see FM 7-30. 



109 



90. DELAYING ACTION, a. Delaying action is a form 
of defensive action employed to delay the enemy's ad- 
vance and gain time without becoming decisively en- 
gaged. Delay is usually obtained by forcing the enemy 
to early deployment and to time-consuming preparations 
for battle, (See FM 7-40.) 

b. Owing to the extended frontage on which a delay- 
ing action is ordinarily conducted, the bulk of the anti- 
tank company is usually attached to frontline battalions 
and flank security elements, while the remainder of the 
company, if any, is held in readiness or disposed to 
protect rear installations. 

e. The antimechanized protection of a regiment con- 
ducting a delaying action on one position is not mate- 
rially different, except for the extended frontage, from 
that of a regiment occupying a position in sustained 
defense. 

d. When successive positions are to be occupied, and 
a portion of the company remains under direct control 
of the company commander, he employs his reconnais- 
sance personnel to reconnoiter the flanks of the first 
delaying position for tentative firing positions, as well as 
for locations where mines can profitably be employed. 
As time permits, this reconnaissance is extended to the 
rear to include the flanks of the next delaying position. 
When all platoons of the company are attached to sub- 
ordinate units of the regiment, the company commander 
employs his reconnaissance and other command group 
personnel to assist these subordinate units, primarily 
by furnishing them with information regarding routes 
and antitank positions to their rear; and by assisting 
in the supply of ammunition. 

e. If practicable, firing position areas should be such 
that firing positions may be located near topographical 
crests, with nearby cover positions for prime movers to 
facilitate withdrawal. The firing position is selected to 

no 



FRONT LINE UNITS 



WITHDRAWS 
UNDER 
BATTALION 
CONTROL 



oo 



I 

BN 

COVERING 
FORCE 



-J» PROTECTS ^ J , 

u, THE WITHDRAWAL V — *--y>S 

r *i OF FRONT-LINE COMPANIES ( i| J, It , 



DESIGNATED 
ASSEMBLY AREA 



INSURES 

ANTIMECHANIZED 
PROTECTION ON 
FLANK DURING 
WITHDRAWAL 



DESIGNATED 
ASSEMBLY AREA 



REVERTS TO 
COMPANY CONTHI 



REGIMENTAL RESERVE 
PROTECTS THE WITHDRAWAL 
OF FRONT-LINE 
BATTALIONS 




MAY. OCCUPY 
PREPARED 
POSITIONS' ON ROUTE / 
OF WITHDRAWAL ^ 

I 



REGIMENTAL 
ASSEMBLY AREA 



_ _ - III 



Figure ij. Front-line regiment in withdrawal. Antitank platoon of 
antitank company, attached to left battalion, shown in figure, ins- 
tances are schematic. 



favor long-range fires. Guns open fire at the earliest 
moment that promises effect against the type of hostile 
armored vehicles employed, as well as such secondary 
targets as automatic weapons and groups of personnel. 
Ammunition is kept mobile; only that sufficient for 
estimated needs is placed at firing positions. 

f . In open country, where hostile forces have freedom 
of action, the regiment will be particularly vulnerable 
to encirclements and flank attack. The antimechanized 
measures employed during its withdrawal from one de- 
laying position to the next must provide all around 
protection. Elements of the company should be con- 
stantly prepared to go into action in any direction with- 
out delay. Antitank guns, protected by riflemen, may be 
placed temporarily in intermediate delaying positions 
to delay hostile armored or motorized units closely fol- 
lowing the withdrawal or working around the flanks. 
Mines are extensively employed to block roads and de- 
files. Traffic warning guard (s) must be maintained over 
mines placed in rear delaying positions until the last 
friendly vehicles have cleared. 

g. The difficulties of supply in a delaying action re- 
quire that the company commander make an early esti- 
mate of the additional mines and ammunition required, 
and initiate timely recommendations to the regimental 
commander for the use of additional mines, as well as 
requests to S-4 for additional mines and ammunition. 
Command group personnel are employed to assist in 
insuring the delivery of these supplies at the proper times 
and places. 

SECTION IV 

SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

91. DEFENSE IN WOODS, a. For defense in woods, the 
antitank company is usually employed in a manner sim- 

ua 



ilar to that in other defensive operations, although the 
need for reinforcing the antimechanized defense of front- 
line battalions may be reduced, and correspondingly 
greater- weight given to defense of the flanks and rear 
of the regiment. Within the woods, antitank weapons 
and mines are sited to cover roads or other likely ave- 
nues of approach for hostile armored vehicles. If a lateral 
edge of the woods lies within the regimental sector, 
guns protecting that flank should, if practicable, be 
located either well within or well outside the edge. 
The edge itself does not provide suitable positions, since 
it is particularly subject to artillery preparatory fires. 

b. Close-in protection for antitank guns is essential. 
Unless they are emplaced within areas defended by 
riflemen, the company commander should request the 
attachment of sufficient riflemen to provide adequate 
close-in protection. (See also par. 6s.) 

92. DEFENSE IN TOWNS (see FM 31-50) . a. When the 
regimental sector of the battle position lies within a 
town, all around antimechanized protection is essential. 
Hostile tanks which succeed in entering me town may be 
able to move unobserved to attack positions very close 
to the defensive positions. Although tank attacks are 
largely canalized along streets, the time during which 
antitank weapons can fire at the approaching vehicles 
before the latter overrun the position is brief. The debris 
of destroyed building's also limits the defenders' ability 
to move antitank weapons rapidly to threatened points. 
For these reasons, antitank guns are seldom held mobile. 

b. Adequate close-in protection for antitank guns is 
particularly important because of the ability of small 
groups of enemy foot troops to work their way, unob- 
served, through or over buildings. 

c. Some of the streets in the town may be obstructed 
by fallen walls, as a result either of hostile shelling or 



113 



of deliberate demolition by the defenders, thus denying 
approaches to armored vehicles. Open streets leading to 
the position should be barricaded. These street barri- 
cades may be constructed by using vehicles (s-uch as 
streetcars or earth-filled trucks with wheels removed) , 
car rails, beams, or rubble obtained from ruined build- 
ings. 

d. Antitank guns are usually sited to cover street 
intersections, street barricades, and open streets, parks, 
or other areas along which tanks can approach the posi- 
tion. Fields of fire should be cleared of obstructing 
fences, hedges, and buildings. Guns should be emplaced 
in die debris of ruined buildings or placed within build- 
ings to fire through loopholes. Loopholes should be con- 
cealed when' possible. Dummy loopholes are prepared 
in order to deceive the enemy. Sandbags should be placed 
behind each unused loophole, to prevent the passage 
of enemy fire. An ordinary brick wall usually will not 
afford protection against a sustained burst of machine- 
gun fire at short range, nor will an ordinary floor protect 
against small-arms fire from above or below. Positions 
inside buildings should be reinforced by sandbags, or 
any other available containers filled with sand or rubble. 
Window panes should be broken and removed to pre- 
vent casualties from flying glass. All exterior doors 
should be barricaded, chimneys closed near the top, 
and windows screened or covered to prevent hand gre- 
nades from being thrown or dropped into the building. 
Supplies of water, food, and ammunition, as well as first 
aid and fire fighting equipment, should" be stocked at 
each gun position. 

e. Mines are used to assist in blocking favorable tank 
approaches. 

f. Antitank guns and rockets will frequently be used 
to neutralize or destroy automatic weapons which the 
enemy succeeds in advancing to positions sheltered be- 



114 



hincl the concrete or brick walls of buildings or piles 
of debris. Antitank grenades may be employed to ad- 
vantage against targets -which cannot be neutralized by 
(la t- trajectory weapons. 

g. Troops should prepare shelters affording protection 
from flying masonry. 

93. DEFENSE OF RIVER LINE. a. When the regiment 
defends a river line, some antitank guns may be em- 
placed on or near the bank with the mission of firing 
on boats, amphibian tanks, landing barges, and hostile 
automatic weapons supporting the attack. However, 
since the enemy may be expected to use smoke, only 
the minimum number of guns should be employed on 
these missions. Guns should be provided with adequate 
dose-in rifle protecion, and promptly displaced to the. 
rear when the enemy attacks under conditions which 
prevent their effective employment. 

b. When it is known that the enemy does not possess 
amphibian tanks and landing barges, antitank guns are 
not emplaced on the river bank, since tanks usually 
will not be ferried across until other hostile troops 
establish a bridgehead. The antitank company should 
be held mobile in one or more positions in the general 
vicinity of the regimental reserve. The company com- 
mander must be informed of the regimental plans for 
defense and counterattack. In accordance with these 
plans, the regimental sector is thoroughly reconnoitered 
to select tentative firing position areas and routes there- 
to. 

e. If the enemy succeeds in establishing a bridgehead 
and bringing tanks across the river, the antitank com- 
pany may be employed to reinforce battalion antitank 
platoons in neutralizing such tanks as cross to the bridge- 
head. Prior to that time, if its guns are employed, their 



115 



fire is directed against hostile automatic weapons and 
antitank guns. 

d. For further details, see FM 7-20. 

94. DEFENSE AGAINST AIRBORNE OPERATIONS, a. 

Troops transported by air include parachute troops and 
air-landing troops. The latter, transported by airplanes 
or gliders, are usually landed in combat units equipped 
with infantry weapons. Light artillery, lightly armored 
combat vehicles, and the smaller types of wheeled trans- 
port may be landed with the troops. Ordinarily, this 
materiel can be landed only after suitable landing areas 
have been seized by parachute troops. 

b. The hostile attack is usually preceded by extensive 
aerial reconnaissance. Immediately preceding an at- 
tempted landing by airborne troops, enemy combat 
aviation may be expected to bomb and machine-gun all 
defenses surrounding the selected area (s) . During and 
following a landing, it may be expected to continue 
machine-gun and low altitude bombing attacks. 

e. Elements of the antitank company may be attached 
to any portion of the regiment employed as a task force 
in defending areas against airborne attack. These ele- 
ments may be employed to establish and defend road 
blocks for the purpose 'if delaying the hostile advance 
from areas in which landings have been accomplished. 
Antitank guns may also be assigned position areas, with 
the mission of firing upon hostile gliders and airplanes 
as they land. 

d. The area commander's plans will include intercep- 
tion and neutralization of airborne landings before the 
enemy can occupy any critical terrain features. When 
the numb(T and size of probable landing areas for air- 
planes ana gliders are so limited that an effective defense 
of each area can be provided, all troops may be dis- 
tributed in defensive positions to protect these areas. 



116 



When probable, landing areas are so numerous that 
such fixed defense of each area cannot be provided, the 
entire force may be held mobile. In many situations, a 
combination of the above methods will be employed. 

e. Antitank elements which form part of mobile units 
must conduct, in advance, intensive reconnaissance of 
routes and tentative position areas in order to be pre- 
pared to move rapidly to any tlireatened locality. In 
selecting firing positions, concealment from hostile aerial 
observation during movement thereto is of particular 
importance. Formations, as well as routes and methods 
of movement, should be planned to reduce losses from 
the intensive air attacks which are to be expected. 

t. Leaders of antitank elements included in units 
assigned to the fixed defense of a probable landing area 
select and prepare as many alternate firing positions 
as possible, in order that the guns may occupy positions, 
during the attack, different from any occupied during 
hostile reconnaissance, and to permit prompt displace- 
ment when so required. All positions must be concealed 
and camouflaged, and numerous dummy positions con- 
structed. When time permits, sufficient one-man or two- 
man fox holes for all members of gun crews should be 
constructed near each firing position. 

g. Close-in rifle protection for all antitank units is 
essential. In addition, it is particularly important that 
plans of fire and maneuver be so prepared and executed 
that friendly troops will not fire upon one another. 

h. Constant alertness is required. It must be impressed 
upon every individual that there is no "front." Each 
subordinate unit, whether assigned to a defensive position 
or forming part of a mobile unit, must be prepared to 
go into action, at a moment's notice, in the area in 
which it is located, or to move to any threatened locality. 



117 



95. DESERT OPERATIONS. For a discussion of desert 
operations) see paragraph 67. 

96. MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS. For a discussion of 
mountain operations, see paragraph 69. 



118 



CHAPTER 7 
ANTITANK PLATOON 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

97. COMPOSITION, tt. The antitank platoon of the 

antitank company consists of a command group (head- 
quarters) and three gun squads (see fig. i) . The com- 
mand group consists of the platoon leader, platoon 
sergeant, and messenger. 

fa. For composition of antitank squads, see chapter 8. 

e. For armament, equipment, and transport, see Table 
of Organization and Equipment. 

98. DUTIES OF COMMAND GROUP, a. Platoon 
Leader. The platoon leader commands the platoon and 
is responsible, under such orders as he may receive from 
the company commander, for its training, discipline, 
control, and tactical employment. So far as applicable, 
his duties are similar to those of the company commander 
described in paragraphs 8a, and 9-12. Assisted by the 
platoon sergeant and the messenger, he controls the 
action of the platoon through timely orders issued to 
the squad leaders. 



119 



b. Platoon Sergeant. (1) The platoon sergeant, the 
second-in-command, assists the platoon leader in the exe- 
cution of his duties, and commands the platoon when the 
latter is absent or becomes a casualty. 

{2) In the attack, the platoon sergeant performs any 
duties assigned by the platoon leader. Initially, he will 
be in the rear o£ the platoon at a point where he can 
supervise ammunition supply. He may command the 
rear element of the platoon during displacement. When 
the squads are widely separated, he may be employed 
to reconnoiter for the displacement of one or more 
squads. 

(3) In defense, he may remain with the platoon leader, 
or, when the squads are widely dispersed, supervise 
the actions of one or niore of the squads. He may op- 
erate the observation post. He performs any necessary, 
administrative duties when the platoon is detached. 

(4) He controls the platoon vehicles when they are 
assembled, and insures their security by timely recon- 
naissance, dispersion in defilade, concealment, and cam- 
ouflage. He posts truck drivers as observer near their 
vehicles in order to insure observation in all directions, 
and designates one driver to observe for signals and 
receive messages from himself or from the platoon leader. 
He supervises fuel requirements and driver maintenance 
of vehicles. 

e. Messenger. The messenger transmits oral and writ- 
ten messages. He may be directed to act as observer, 
assist in performance of security missions, and operate 
the signal equipment allotted to the platoon. Excep- 
tionally, he may be used as a liaison agent between the 
platoon and the unit supported. He drives the vehicle 
assigned to platoon headquarters, and is responsible for 
driver maintenance. 



130 



99. COMMUNICATION, a. The antitank company 
commander, and the commander of the unit which the" 
platoon supports, are responsible for maintaining con- 
tact with the platoon. Similarly, the platoon leader is 
responsible for maintaining contact with his squads. 

b. For communication, the platoon leader employs the 
messenger, as well as arm-and-hand signals, panel set, 
pyrotechnic projectors, sound-powered telephones, and 
radiotelephones. The last two items of equipment are not 
provided organically, but may be made available by the 
antitank company commander. 

100. MISSIONS AND TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT, a. 

The missions of the platoon are assigned by the anti- 
tank company commander, except when the platoon is 
attached to another unit of the regiment. Primary mis- 
sions may include reinforcement of the antitank defenses 
of a front-line battalion, deepening of the antimecha- 
nized defense within the regimental zone or sector, and 
assisting in the protection of the regimental command 
post, flanks, rear, and ammunition distributing point. 
At times, the platoon may be assigned secondary missions 
of firing on hostile antitank guns, automatic weapons, 
emplacements, pill boxes, or other point targets (see 
par. 5 ) . 

b. When the platoon is employed under company 
control in the mission of reinforcing the antitank de- 
fense of a front-line battalion, it will generally occupy 
a position which will afford depth and density in fire, 
and flank and rear security to the battalion. When so 
operating, its guns will be placed farther to the rear 
than the battalion guns; however, every effort should 
be made to locate the guns so that they can fire forward 
of the leading troops to the greatest practicable distance, 
as well as toward the flanks and rear of the battalion. 
(See FM 7-20.) 



Hi 



e. The regimental commander may frequently attach 
-a part or all of a platoon of the antitank company to 
a leading battalion. In such cases, the battalion com- 
mander may employ the regimental guns as outlined in 
b above, or, if there are wide frontages and many frontal 
avenues of approach to be covered, he may employ the 
greater number of all available guns in forward areas. 
One method of covering an extended frontage is to 
divide the battalion area into two zones or sectors, using 
the battalion antitank platoon in one zone (sector) , 
and the attached platoon in the other. Each platoon will 
then have the mission of providing antimechanized de- 
fense for its allotted portion of the battalion area, and 
may bring its greater strength forward to protect the 
leading troops and cover the forward avenues of ap- 
proach. 

d. When an antitank platoon of the antitank company 
is attached to a forward battalion, and is to be employed 
in one of the two zones (sectors) as described in c above, 
both antitank platoon leaders must insure— 

(1) That there are no unprotected avenues of approach 
near the boundaries of the two units. 

(2) That the guns of the platoons provide each other 
with mutual fire support; this is particularly important 
during displacements. 

e. When the regiment is advancing in attack, antitank 
platoons of leading battalions ordinarily complete their 
displacements to more advanced firing position areas 
before any elements of regimental antitank platoons 
arrive in the new location. Tn the organization of a 
defensive position, the battalion antitank guns fre- 
quently occupy their positions prior to the arrival of 
units of the antitank company which are to be employed 
in their vicinity. In both attack and defense, platoon 
leaders of the antitank company note on arrival the 
locations of the battalion antitank guns and other 



122 



weapons which may be employed against tanks, as well 
as the location of any nearby mine fields and obstacles. 
They then assign such firing position areas and sectors 
of responsibility to their squads as will effect maximum 
coordination of fires. 

f. Antitank mines may be made available to the 
platoon for the establishment of road blocks and other 
mined obstacles to tank approach, especially when the 
platoon is employed on security missions. The platoon 
leader is responsible for the laying of mines by the 
squads, and for their recording, guarding, and marking. 
Technical assistance may be furnished by attached indi- 
viduals of the mine platoon. (See also par. 158.) 

101. COORDINATION AND COOPERATION WITH 
ADJACENT UNITS. So far as his orders permit, the 
platoon leader insures that the location (s) and actions 
of his unit, in coordination with adjacent antitank guns, 
antitank grenadiers, rocket teams, mine fields, and other 
obstacles, provide the best possible protection to the 
unit which his platoon is supporting, or the area which 
it is protecting. This is of particular importance when 
the platoon is protecting a flank. He arranges with the 
commander of any antitank clement which may be 
located in the immediate vicinity of his firing position 
area (s) , for mutual support in case of hostile attack. 
He also effects coordination with any nearby friendly 
units in regard to local security, use of communications, 
warning of hostile tank approach, and similar matters. 
(See also par. 100b.) 

102. FIRE CONTROL, a. The gun squad is the basic 
fire unit. Squad leaders usually control the fire of their 
guns; direct control by platoon leaders is exceptional. 
Antitank squads must be prepared at all times to fire 
on any tanks appearing within effective range. (See 



123 



par. ab (i) (a) .) However, in order to carry out the 
mission assigned him by the company commander, the 
platoon leader will, as a general rule, assign a definite 
sector of responsibility to each squad. The size of the 
sector will depend on the terrain, visibility, and prox- 
imity of mutually supporting guns. Whenever practic- 
able, sectors should overlap those of adjacent squads. 
Although gun squads are primarily responsible for firing 
on hostile tanks appearing at effective range within 
their sectors of responsibility, they are also responsible 
for engaging dangerous targets in adjacent sectors. The 
squad leader is responsible for continuous observation 
of his assigned sector, as well as the flanks and rear. 

b. The platoon leader assigns a principal direction of 
fire to each gun. The squad leader is responsible for 
placing the gun in its firing position. Whether in a 
primary or alternate position, the gun is so placed that 
it can fire in the assigned principal direction without 
shifting trails. However, it will frequently be necessary 
to shift the trails to engage targets appearing elsewhere 
either in or outside the squad's sector of responsibility. 

c. Usually each squad is assigned its firing and cover 
positions by the platoon leader. If lack of time prevents 
him from selecting these positions, he will designate the 
firing position area for each squad and the principal 
direction (s) of fire, and delegate the selection of firing 
and cover positions to the squad leader. 

d. The platoon leader may control the opening of fire 
either by prescribing ranges or designating terrain fea- 
tures which hostile vehicles are to cross or pass before 
fire is opened. (See par. 47c.) Opening fires are with- 
held until the target is positively recognized as a hostile 
vehicle. A vehicle is assumed to be hostile if its crew 
fails to establish its identity in accordance with a pre- 
arranged code. When such a code has not been estab- 
lished, recognition may be effected by the appearance, 



114 



sound, and actions of the vehicle. The possibility of the 
enemy's using vehicles captured from friendly forces, 
and of friendly forces' using vehicles captured from the 
enemy, must be considered. Reconnaissance and decoy 
vehicles will not be fired on except by order of the 
company commander, or, if the platoon is attached to 
a battalion, the battalion commander. (See figs, a and 
14.) 

e. When the guns of the platoon are in a firing posi- 
tion for a considerable period of time, control by the 
platoon leader is greatly facilitated by the use of sound- 
powered telephones. Such telephones, together with wire, 
should be made available for this purpose by the com- 
pany commander. 

103. SECURITY. 0. Warning Service. (1) The platoon 
leader directs each squad leader to post at least one 
air-antitank guard prior to the fire fight, to warn of the 
approach of hostile aircraft, armored vehicles, or foot 
troops. All around observation must be maintained by 
these guards, and other members of the squad must be 
constantly alert for signals which the guards transmit. 
Gun crews located in cover positions also maintain con- 
stant observation, and are particularly watchful over 
their assigned sector of responsibility. Leaders of squads 
which have good observation in all directions from the 
firing position will not post an air-antitank guard during 
the fire fight itself; squad members at the gun will main- 
tain all-around observation. 

(a) All personnel of the platoon should be informed of 
the location and movements of friendly tanks and their 
identifying signals; they must know the identifying fea- 
tures of both hostile and friendly tanks and aircraft. 
In addition to the standard warning signal (par. 13) , 
they must know any other warning signals prescribed 
by higher commanders. 



125 



b. 4etioit in Cose of Air Aitack. For action in case 
of air attack, see paragraph 14, 

104. ROUTE MARCHES AND BIVOUACS, a. Route 

March. (1) During a daylight route march by the regi- 
ment, the platoon or its elements may be attached to 
advance, flank, or rear guards, or disposed in the column 
to provide protection to the main body. (See par. 27.) 
Depending on the practicability of cross country move- 
ment, it may be directed to march, either as a unit or 
distributed by squads, in the column of that element 
of the regiment which it is protecting, or to occupy 
successive firing positions covering likely avenues of 
hostile tank approach intersecting the route of march. 
When displacing by bounds to successive firing positions, 
the distance to the new position, and the need for con- 
tinuing protection at the old one, will determine whether 
the platoon should move as a unit or by squad echelon. 
In moving by squad echelon, one squad may displace 
forward, leaving two squads at the old position, or vice 
versa; or each squad may displace successively. Ordi- 
narily, displacement of squads will be effected by leap- 
frogging (see fig. 15) . 

(2) When the platoon is attached to a dismounted 
security element of the regiment, the platoon leader, or 
personnel designated by him, must accompany the lead- 
ing foot elements in order to select cover and firing posi- 
tions. When the platoon is operating under company 
control, these positions will usually be designated by the 
company commander upon information received from 
company reconnaissance personnel.. In either case, the 
platoon leader, or personnel designated by him, should 
precede the leading element of the platoon during move- 
ment to a new firing position area, in order to recon- 
noiter the route and insure expeditious movement. 



127 




Figure 15. Guns covering one another in advance by bounds. 



128 



(a) In an advance guard, antitank squads may be 
advanced from one suitable firing position to another, 
so as to afford continuous antimechanized protection 
to the marching column. In. such movements, antitank 
units are given priority on roads and move rapidly to 
successive positions. Only the amount of ammunition 
required lor immediate needs is unloaded at the gun 
positions. If such employment of the antitank platoon 
is impracticable, as in a motorized movement, the guns 
are distributed in the support and reserve, usually by 
squads, so as to afford protection throughout the advance 
guard. Speed in going into action is essential. When guns 
are in cover or firing positions, members of the crews 
are posted to observe in all directions. Gun crews must 
at all times be on the alert for warning signals from 
air-antitank guards. When contact with the enemy is 
gained, the platoon is employed as in offensive or de- 
fensive combat, depending upon the action of the ad- 
vance guard. 

(b) For the employment of the antitank platoon with 
a flank guard, see paragraph 27c (2) , 

(c) Antitank guns employed with a rear guard are 
distributed in the column, or move by bounds, as in an 
advance guard. As in advance and flank guards, firing 
positions are selected from which the guns may fire on 
hostile armored vehicles before the latter are able to 
disrupt the progress of the rear guard, or break through 
and attack the main body. The platoon may be disposed 
with a squad on each flank of the rear guard to prevent 
its encirclement by hostile mechanized forces. If addi- 
tional guns are attached, two or more guns may be placed 
on each flank. A single gun operating on a flank should 
be reinforced with one or more antitank grenadiers, as 
well as riflemen and/or machine guns. 

(3) For employment of the platoon in night marches, 
see paragraph a 8. 



139 



(4) For the employment of the platoon during motor 
movements by the regiment, see paragraph 29. 

b. Bivouacs. (1) When the regiment bivouacs, or 
makes a long halt, the platoon may be attached to the 
bivouac outpost; employed under company control in 
antimechanized defense of the bivouac area, or held 
mobile (see par. 32) . When the platoon is attached to 
the outpost, or when there has not been an opportunity 
for detailed prior reconnaissance by company reconnais- 
sance personnel, extensive reconnaissance by platoon per- 
sonnel frequently is necessary. To afford immediate 
protection to the bivouac, temporary positions may be 
occupied until a more detailed reconnaissance can be 
completed. (See par. 43.) 

(2) Platoon vehicles are held in concealment and de- 
filade near the guns. Personnel dig fox holes lor indi- 
vidual protection. Fox holes, and tentage, if employed, 
must be camouflaged from aerial observation. 

SECTION II 
APPROACH MARCH 

105. GENERAL. In an approach march, the platoon 
usually operates as a unit under the immediate direction 
of die platoon leader. Its assigned mission may be to 
protect a flank of the regiment, or to support a desig- 
nated rifle unit or echelon. Occasionally, it may be 
attached to a leading battalion. If attached to a bat- 
talion, the platoon leader receives his orders from the 
battalion commander, 

106. DAYLIGHT APPROACH MARCH, o. (1) Move- 
ment in a daylight approach march is effected in a 



130 



series of bounds. The platoon leader's order for the 
march, in accordance with that of the company com- 
mander, includes directions and distances of bounds, and 
objectives. (See par. 40.) 

(2) When the platoon operates under company control, 
the company commander prescribes the initial position 
of the platoon, and indicates whether it is to maintain 
approximately its initial position in the regimental for- 
mation, or is to move by bounds from one firing position 
area to another. When assigning a mission of flank pro- 
tection, the company commander indicates known or 
likely avenues of tank approach which are to be de- 
fended. His initial orders, or subsequent instructions, 
also state the time, or conditions, of release from the 
antitank defense of each designated approach or area, 
and whether company or platoon personnel will re- 
connoitcr for successive positions. He may attach re- 
connaissance and communication personnel to the 
platoon. 

b. (i) When the leader of a platoon assigned the 
mission of defending successive tank .approaches leaves 
the platoon in order to conduct a reconnaissance of the 
firing position area for defense of the first approach, he 
usually arranges for the movement of the platoon to a 
prescribed location, where it will remain under cover, 
prepared for instant, action, until he directs further 
movement. The prescribed location should be as close 
as practicable to the first probable firing position area 
of the platoon. 

(2) While the platoon leader is engaged on reconnais- 
sance, the platoon sergeant conducts the platoon to the 
designated covered location, and makes appropriate pro- 
visions for security, both en route and upon arrival 
thereat. 

(3) Having completed his reconnaissance, the platoon 
leader rejoins his platoon, or dispatches a messenger to 



131 



conduct it promptly to the firing position area. Upon 
arrival of the platoon at the firing position area, he 
causes air-antitank guards to be posted, and, if necessary, 
establishes communication between his command post 
and the observation post (s) . He assigns firing position 
areas, sectors of responsibility, and principal directions 
of fire to the squads, and takes the necessary measures 
for the local defense of the platoon. Guns may be kept 
coupled or may be uncoupled, depending on the terrain 
and the probability of mechanized attack. If uncoupled, 
guns occupy cover positions, when available; otherwise, 
they move directly into firing positions. The platoon 
leader promptly informs the company commander of his 
dispositions. 

c. When definite approaches to be defended are not 
specified, or when the mission of the platoon is to 
support a designated unit or echelon, the platoon usually 
moves by bounds to successive terrain features. The 
rear squad (s) usually does not commence displacement 
until the leading squad (s) has completed its bound, so 
that at least one squad can go into action without delay 
in case of hostile attack (see fig. 15) . 

<f. Battalion antitank platoons usually advance be- 
tween the leading and second echelons of their bat- 
talions; their primary mission is antitank protection of 
the leading echelon. (See par. 186.) A platoon of the . 
antitank company assigned the mission of supporting a 
designated battalion of the regiment, moves generally 
abreast of the rear elements of the battalion unless other- 
wise ordered. It should be prepared at all times to en- 
gage hostile tanks attacking from the flank or rear, or 
which break through the leading echelon. The platoon 
leader coordinates the operations of his platoon with 
that of the battalion antitank platoon to insure con- 
tinuous all-around protection of the unit which it is 
supporting. 



132 



e, (i) ihe platoon leader studies tne terrain, and 
orders such initial dispositions of the platoon, less any 
detached elements, as will best enable him to screen his 
unit from hostile observation, move it in such a manner 
as to avoid or minimize the effect of hostile fire, and 
retain the greatest practicable degree of control over all 
elements. He varies dispositions throughout the approach 
march in accordance widi changes in the nature of the 
terrain and in the situation. Squad leaders take up 
initial formations as directed by the platoon leader. 
Thereafter, they may change formations whenever neces- 
sary to maintain control and take advantage of available 
cover and concealment. 

{2) The platoon leader may dispose the platoon in 
line of squads, in column, with squads echeloned, or in 
triangular formation, A formation in line of squads is 
generally best adapted to rapid movement over exposed 
terrain, and reduces vulnerability to fire from the front, 
but increases the difficulties of control. A column forma- 
tion is vulnerable to fire from the front, and requires a 
change in disposition to employ the weapons toward 
the front; however, it is easily controlled and maneu- 
vered. It is especially suitable for narrow, covered routes 
of advance, for maneuvering through gaps in mine fields 
and between areas receiving hostile artillery lire, and for 
moving through woods, smoke, or darkness. A formation 
with squads echeloned to the right or left rear is more 
easily controlled than squads abreast, and is less vul- 
nerable to fire from the front than platoon column; it- 
also facilitates rapid entry into action toward an exposed 
flank. Control is more difficult than in a column forma- 
tion. A triangular formation may be used to advantage 
when neither flank is secure. Characteristics of ease of 
control and vulnerability to fire are similar to those 
in a formation with squads echeloned. 

(3) Platoons on security missions, or otherwise detached 



133 



from the company, should be furnished with radiotele- 
phones in order to communicate rapidly with the anti- 
tank company commander and commanders of supported 
units. The messenger may also be employed, as well as 
any other available agencies of communication, 
f. For further details, see section II, chapter V. 

107. NIGHT APPROACH MARCH, a. The warning 
order for a night approach march should, if possible, be 
issued in time for a daylight reconnaissance of the route. 

b. When the platoon is assigned a separate route or 
zone of advance, and march objectives, the platoon 
leader makes such daylight reconnaissance as is prac- 
ticable in order to secure accurate compass directions, 
plot the route, and post guides at critical points. The 
route should follow easily distinguishable terrain fea- 
tures, rather than routes which, though more direct, 
may be less clearly defined. 

c. For purposes of control, the platoon usually moves 
in column, with reduced distances. 

cf. For further details, see paragraph 41. 

108. ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSE OF ASSEMBLY 
AREA. a. When, during an approach march, the regi- 
ment halts and occupies an assembly area, antitank 
platoons are ordinarily ordered to occupy firing position 
areas on the outer perimeter of the area- Platoons may 
be assigned principal directions of fire, or be directed 
to cover specified tank approaches. Frequently, due to 
lack of prior ground reconnaissance, the orders received 
describe the firing position area (s) merely as being in 
a generally designated locality, or localities. These or- 
ders are usually received from the company commander 
during the course of the approach march, and require 
the platoon to move to its position and establish anti- 
mechanized protection immediately upon arrival at the 



134 



assembly area. Speed in establishing such protection is 
essential. 

b. (1) When the platoon is directed to occupy one 
firing position area only, the platoon leader informs the 
platoon sergeant of the route to be followed and, accom- 
panied by the necessary guides, precedes the platoon 
to the designated locality for the purpose of effecting a 
reconn aissan ce. 

(2) Whenever practicable, the platoon leader completes 
his reconnaissance of the locality in time for the platoon 
to move directly into firing or cover positions. Each 
squad is met by guides dispatched by the platoon leader 
and is conducted, without halting, into the uncoupling 
position. The guide points out the firing and cover posi- 
tions to the squad leader, who immediately has the 
gun moved into whichever position is designated. The 
platoon leader may direct the squad leaders to remain 
at the gun positions to receive his further orders there, 
or to report to him for orders while the guns are being 
moved into position. Orders should be brief and definite, 
prescribing the firing position, principal direction of 
fire, and sector of responsibility of each squad. 

(3) (a) When time is limited and immediate protection 
is necessary, temporary firing and cover positions which 
appear, from a map or from limited observation, to 
afford protection for the assembly area, may be selected 
by the platoon leader. He directs the occupation of these 
positions until he can complete a more detailed recon- 
naissance. They should afford defilade from flat-trajec- 
tory fire and concealment from air observation. 

(b) When the area to be reconnoitered is extensive, 
it may be divided among the platoon leader and the 
platoon sergeant and one or more squad leaders. Each 
of these individuals, accompanied by a messenger, rap- 
idly reconnoiters his particular portion of the area. The 
officer or noncommissioned officer making the recon- 



135 



naissance selects firing and cover positions, and, upon 
completion of the reconnaissance, returns or sends the 
messenger to his unit to guide it to such positions. When 
squad leaders do not participate in the reconnaissance, 
the platoon leader issues instructions personally or by 
messenger as to the general route to be followed, the 
location of the firing position area, and the missions of 
each squad. 

(r;) While the reconnaissance for firing and cover 
positions is in progress, squad' leaders or, in their ab- 
sence, the gunners, place their guns in the designated 
temporary firing positions and check the condition of 
guns, rocket launchers, individual weapons and equip- 
ment, and vehicles. All elements of the platoon are held 
in readiness for prompt movement. 

c. After each squad has occupied its firing or cover 
position, the platoon leader makes an immediate inspec- 
tion, and orders any necessary changes. 

d. For furdier details, see section III, chapter V. 

SECTION III 
EMPLOYMENT IN ATTACK 

109. RECONNAISSANCE PRIOR TO ATTACK, a. The 

platoon leader may be summoned to receive the com- 
pany attack order at a location from which the initial 
firing position area of the platoon can be pointed out, 
or, if guns are to be held mobile, the initial location 
of the platoon and probable firing positions. Frequently, 
however, the order will be issued to the platoon leader 
at the location occupied by the platoon for the defense 
of the assembly area. The platoon leader may be directed 
to assist the company commander in reconnaissance prior 



136 



to the time the company attack order is issued, 

b. The interval between receipt of the company attack 
order and the time the platoon must commence move- 
ment to its attack positions will frequently be brief; 
however, if the platoon leader has not already made a 
reconnaissance, he makes one in as thorough a manner 
as time and circumstances permit. Prior to leaving on 
reconnaissance, he informs the platoon sergeant of his 
planned route and destination, and may issue instruc- 
tions for the forward movement of the platoon to its 
firing position area. 

c. During his reconnaissance, the platoon leader seeks 
information concerning— 

(1) Likely avenues of approach for hostile armored 
vehicles. 

(2) Natural and artificial tank obstacles. 

(3) Locations of supported ride troops and their plan of 
action. 

(4) Positions and principal directions of fire of nearby 
battalion or other antitank units. 

(5) Cover, primary, and alternate positions, and sector 
of responsibility for each squad. 

(6) Supplementary and alternate firing positions. When 
time is pressing, it may be necessary to defer the selection 
of supplementary firing positions until after the platoon 
attack order is issued, and the firing position area occu- 
pied. 

(7) Uncoupling positions as far forward as concealment 
and defilade for the prime movers permit, and concealed 
or covered routes therefrom to firing or cover positions. 

(8) Location of enemy mine fields. 

(9) Covered routes for forward displacements from ini- 
tial firing position areas. 

(10) A platoon observation post from which the platoon 
leader can observe all elements of the platoon or, if 



137 



this is impracticable, from which he can observe the 
squad (s) having the more important mission (s) . 

110. ORDERS, a. When practicable, the platoon leader 
issues his order to squad leaders at a point from which 
they can see the terrain over which they are to advance. 
Ground which is favorable for tank action, as well as 
existing tank obstacles, should be pointed out. 

b. If time permits, the platoon leader may direct 
that squad leaders go forward to receive the order while 
die squads are in the assembly area. In such a case, 
squad leaders, after receiving the order, return, or send 
a messenger, to guide the squads into their firing or 
cover positions. If the squads have already advanced to 
the initial firing position area, the platoon leader may 
direct that the squad leaders report to him at the point 
where the order is to be issued, as soon as the guns 
are in temporary firing positions. 

c. The platoon leader's order covers— 

(1) Necessary information of the enemy and friendly 
troops, to include— 

(a) Types of enemy tanks operating in the vicinity. 

(b) Location of known or suspected enemy mine fields 
or mined road blocks, information as to passages and 
warning signs. 

(c) Proposed movement and plan of action of friendly 
tanks operating in the vicinity, together with their iden- 
tifying marks and signals. 

(ci) Challenge signal (if prescribed) to be used in 
requiring tanks to identify themselves. 

(e) Location of nearby antitank guns of other units, 
and of known mine fields and other antitank obstacles. 

(/) Available details of the plan of action of nearby 
antitank units, or other friendly troops, so far as they 
may affect the action of his platoon, 
(a) Mission (s) of the platoon. 



138 



(3) Instructions for each squad, to include— 

(a) Location of cover, primary, and alternate posi- 
tions, principal direction of fire, and sector of respon- 
sibility. 

(b) Conditions governing opening of fire (see par. 

102c) . 

(c) Locations of supplementary and alternate posi- 
tions, and conditions under which they are to be occu- 
pied. 

(d) Employment of rocket teams. ' 

(e) Construction of emplacements. 

(f) Engagement of secondary targets. 

(g) Instructions which can be given at this time con- 
cerning displacement to more advanced position areas. 

(h) Establishment of liaison with nearby units. 

(4) Location of company ammunition supply poin't; in- 
formation covering resupply of ammunition; location of 
aid station to be utilized by the platoon. 

(5) Location of platoon leader; . location of company 
command post; any warning signals, or other pertinent 
details of the warning service, not covered in standing 
operating procedure; pertinent extracts from signal op- 
eration instructions, such as call names, prearranged 
message code, map coordinate code, and pyrotechnic 
signals. 

111. OCCUPATION OF INITIAL FIRING POSITION 
AREA. a. The platoon leader initiates the movement 
of his platoon to the initial firing position area at such 
time, or under such conditions, as may be prescribed by 
the company commander, as, for example, the initiation 
of forward movement by a specified battalion, or other 
element, of the regiment. (See par. 109b.) Whenever 
practicable, the platoon leader personally leads the 
platoon; otherwise, he employs a guide for that purpose, 
b. Upon arrival at the uncoupling positions, sufficient 



139 



ammunition to meet contemplated needs is unloaded 
from squad prime movers, and vehicles are disposed in 
nearby defiladed and concealed positions. The movement 
of the guns to cover or firing positions', and of ammu- 
nition to firing positions, is completed by hand. Upon 
arrival at the designated position, an air-antitank guard 
is posted by each squad leader, and the platoon ob- 
servation post manned. Rocket teams are designated. 
Emplacements and fox holes are constructed for the 
weapons and personnel. Technical means of communi- 
cation (sound-powered telephones or radiotelephones) 
which may be furnished die platoon are tested. The 
platoon leader notifies the company commander when 
the platoon is in position. For ammunition replenish- 
ment in attack, see paragraph 31. 

112. ACTION AGAINST HOSTILE MECHANIZED AT- 
TACK, a. Guns remain in cover positions until action 
is imminent, at which time they are moved quickly, by 
hand, to firing positions. Fire is opened and conducted 
as prescribed in paragraph 102. Individuals not engaged 
in the operation of the guns maintain observation for 
hostile tanks which may approach from the flanks or 
rear, and employ their weapons in the close protection 
of the guns and crews. Antitank rockets and grenades 
are employed for protection against tanks approaching 
from directions other than those in which the guns are 
firing (see fig. 16) . The platoon leader closely super- 
vises the action, and promptly orders any changes in 
the conduct of squads which may be necessary for the 
accomplishment of the platoon mission. 

b. Fire, once opened, is not interrupted during the 
progress of a tank attack, except when advantage is 
taken of lulls in the action to move to alternate positions. 
Immediately alter accomplishing a fire mission, guns 
must often be moved to cover or alternate firing posi- 



140 




141 



tions, since the muzzle blast and distinctive noise will 
have disclosed the location o£ primary positions. Ordi- 
narily, this movement is accomplished under the super- 
vision of squad leaders, and without specific orders 
from the platoon leader. 

e. Continuous mutual support between guns insures 
that hostile tank attempts to overrun one gun position 
will be met by the flanking fire of anodrer gun. 

113. RECONNAISSANCE DURING ATTACK, o. Re- 
connaissance for new firing and cover positions, and cov- 
ered routes thereto, is continuous throughout the attack. 
The platoon leader initiates this reconnaissance at the 
earliest practicable moment. 

b. Before leaving a firing position area on reconnais- 
sance, he issues fragmentary orders to the platoon ser- 
geant and squad leaders. These orders usually include— 
(i) Signal or conditions for the platoon to initiate 
displacement; if on signal, the locality from which the 
signal will be given. 

(3) Method of displacement (whether by platoon as a 
unit or by squad echelon) . 

(3) Method of movement (whether coupled or by hand; 
if by hand, whether trucks will move under platoon or 
squad control) . 

(4) Information of proposed route of platoon leader, 
and where he can be reached for further instructions. 
When the intervening terrain is not entirely visible, or 
is unknown, information as to the route (s) to be fol- 
lowed may be sent back during the course of the recon- 
naissance; otherwise, they must be marked by pre- 
arranged means, or guides sent back before the displace- 
ment is commenced. 

c. The leader of a platoon designated to protect a 
leading battalion, accompanied by a messenger, follows 
the attacking echelon closely, and reconnoiters for the 



14a 



displacement of his platoon. Reconnaissance covers the 
location of the attacking echelon, including nearby 
rocket teams, likely hostile tank approaches, enemy mine 
fields, routes for displacement, firing and cover posi- 
tions, and locations where trucks may be held under 
cover. Routes are marked, or squad leaders informed of 
their location, as described in b (4) above. During his 
reconnaissance, the platoon leader maintains contact 
with the battalion antitank platoon leader. 

114. DISPLACEMENT, a. Platoons operating under 
mission orders must displace when the mission can no 
longer be accomplished from the positions occupied. 
Displacement of platoons retained under company con- 
trol is effected upon order of die company commander. 
Displacement is made rapidly, as soon as the first terrain 
mask occupied by the enemy has been captured. De- 
pending upon the need for maintaining protection at 
the initial position, displacement may be made by squad 
echelon — two squads displacing, with one remaining in 
place, or vice versa — or by platoons displacing forward 
as units, either under the control of platoon leaders or 
platoon sergeants. Squads are met on neartng new firing 
position areas, and guided into position. Preparations to 
repel armored counterattack are completed without de- 
lay. A platoon providing flank protection for an advanc- 
ing unit must quickly occupy new firing position areas 
to defend tank approaches on the flank as these ap- 
proaches are uncovered by the advancing troops. 

b. Although antitank guns may be moved moderate 
distances by hand, they are dependent upon their prime 
movers for movements over extended distances. Since 
movement over terrain exposed to observed hostile fire 
invites, destruction, covered routes should be followed 
whenever practicable, even though this may involve de- 
touring. At times it may be necessary to await the cap- 



143 




Figure 17. Displacement of antitank platoon. Platoon initially in firing position 
area 1, protecting right flank. U) Capture i>f ivoods W and X ; cne7fty*stitl hold- 
ing hill C, Reconnaissance initiated for routes of displacement; guns do not 
displace. (2) Capture af hilt B, enemy holding hill C. Reconnaissance for routes 
continued; guns da not displace. (J) Capture of hill C. Guns displace to firing 
position area 2. (4) Capture of hill A and road RS. Reconnaissance imtiated 
for further displacement, 

144 



ture o£ terrain which will provide defilade, before com- 
mencing displacement (see fig. 17) . 

c. If possible, the platoon leader meets each squad in 
the vicinity of the new firing position area and points 
out to the squad leader the uncoupling position, cover 
position, squad sector of responsibility, and principal 
direction of fire. Otherwise, a guide with this informa- 
tion meets the squad nearing new firing position areas 
and conducts it to its new firing position (see par. a 
above) . 

115. PROTECTING REORGANIZATION OF LEADING 
RIFLE UNITS. After leading rifle units have captured a 
hostile position, they may halt to effect reorganization, 
at which time hostile mechanized counterattacks are to 
be expected. The antitank guns are promptly displaced 
forward to positions where they will be able to cover by 
fire all likely avenues of approach. (See par. 57.) 

116. REORGANIZATION OF ANTITANK PLATOON. 

Whenever a leader or other key man becomes a casualty, 
he is promptly replaced. During a fire fight, guns whose 
crews have been seriously depleted by casualties are kept 
in action by temporary readjustment of duties among 
other squad members, and, if necessaTy, by reassignment 
of men within the platoon. Complete reorganization 
usually is postponed until the final objective has been 
reached. The reorganization must be so conducted that 
an attack by hostile armored vehicles can be immediately 
and effectively engaged. The situation, strength, and am- 
munition status of the platoon are promptly reported to 
the company commander without waiting for completion 
of the reorganization. 

117. PURSUIT, a. For a discussion of pursuit, and of 
the employment of the antitank company therein, see 
paragraph 58. 



145 



b. A retreating enemy must be expected to employ 
armored vehicles in counterattacks to assist in disengag- 
ing his retreating units, or to disrupt and delay the 
pursuit. The platoon must be prepared to engage such 
counterattacks at all times. 

c. Pursuit usually requires decentralization of control, 
and always requires the exercise of initiative, judg- 
ment, and aggressiveness on the part of platoon and 
squad leaders. They must be constantly alert for oppor- 
tunities to engage and destroy retreating armored ve- 
hicles or motorized units which arc in march column or 
traversing defiles, as well as hostile automatic weapons 
or other point targets which are holding up the pursuit 
and are not being effectively engaged by other weapons. 

118. EMPLOYMENT AT NIGHT, a. Action when Ad- 
vance is halted. If an attack is interrupted by darkness, 
the platoon leader promptly disposes his platoon. to cover 
the most favorable tank approaches leading into his 
sector of responsibility. He contacts the company com- 
mander, or, if attached to a battalion, the battalion com- 
mander, for further instructions. 

b. Preparation for Daylight Attack. (0 Recon- 
naissance by daylight should, if possible, precede a night 
movement in preparation for a daylight attack. When 
attached to, or supporting a leading battalion, the pla- 
toon should be moved to the area of departure in time 
to be in position at daylight. The platoon may displace 
to the area of departure as a unit, or by individual 
squads under the control of their squad leaders. Anti- 
mechanized protection must be continued during the 
forward displacement. 

(a) It is frequently impossible to select exact firing posi- 
tions prior to dawn. In such cases, temporary firing posi- 
tions are occupied. The selection of exact firing positions 



146 



must be completed as soon after dawn as possible, in 
order that movement of the guns thereto may be com- 
pleted before the platoon is exposed to hostile observa- 
tion. The platoon leader prescribes in advance the exact 
duties which each individual is to perform during this 
period, and insures that all members of the platoon 
understand their duties. By inspection, both en route 
and after occupation of firing positions for the attack, 
he assures himself that all guns can perform their as- 
signed missions, and so informs the company commander. 

(3) If prime movers are not employed, additional per- 
sonnel may be required to assist in moving the gun, and 
in hand-carrying ammunition. 

(4) For further details see paragraph 48a. 

e. Night Attack. (1) When a night attack is to be 
made, the preparations by a platoon leader include 
prompt issuance of warning orders to subordinates, fix- 
ing the time and place at which squad leaders are to 
report for orders, and reconnaissance of the terrain over 
which the advance is to be made. 

(a) The attack order goes into much greater detail than 
a similar order for an attack by day. The squads are 
assigned initial firing position areas and principal direc- 
tions of fire, or locations of positions for guns to be held 
mobile, if so employed. Instructions for squads displac- 
ing to tire objective after its capture include the signals 
for and method of displacement, any necessary informa- 
tion as to passage of mine fields, new firing position 
areas, and new directions of fire. Instructions for squads 
not displacing to the objective include changes, if any, 
to be made prior to daylight. Instructions for all squads 
include security measures, methods and rates of advance, 
and special measures for control and coordination. 

(3) For further details see paragraph 60. 



147 



119. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. For the system of am- 
munition supply in attack and duties of the platoon 
leader in connection therewith, see paragraph 21. 

120. SPECIAL OPERATIONS. For the employment of 
the antitank platoon in attack in woods, of towns, of a 
river line, of a fortified position, in support of raids, in 
desert operations, in mountain operations and in the 
establishment of a beachhead, see chapter 5, section VI. 

SECTION IV 
EMPLOYMENT JN DEFENSE 

121. TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT. In defense, the pla 
toon may be employed to reinforce the antimechanized 
defense of a front-line battalion, or as part of the regi- 
mental antimechanized defense in depth. 

122. MISSIONS, a. The company commander assigns 
the mission (s) of the platoon and indicates its general 
position area (s) , The primary mission of the platoon 
is to destroy or neutralize hostile armored vehicles which 
threaten that portion of the defensive position of the bat- 
talion or regiment within the assigned sector of re- 
sponsibility of the platoon, or adjacent thereto. 

b. The platoon, or one or more squads, may be at- 
tached initially to an outpost established by the regi- 
ment. (See par. 73.) When so employed, the leader of 
the platoon, or lesser element, promptly reports to the 
outpost commander for orders, and, as soon as possible, 
reconnoiters for firing positions on the outpost position. 
It is essential that an early and thorough reconnaissance 
be made of firing position areas in the battle position, 



148 



the routes by which the platoon, or element, is to with- 
draw thereto. This reconnaissance will ordinarily be 
performed by company reconnaissance personnel, who 
will also act as guides if the platoon is to occupy posi- 
tions selected by them. 

123. RECEIPT OF COMPANY DEFENSE ORDER, a. 

When time is available, the platoon leader will usually 
be directed to report to the company commander and 
receive a complete order at a location from which his 
firing position area, or mobile position, and die disposi- 
tions of nearby friendly troops, can be pointed out. (See 
par. 77c.) 

J». When time is limited, the company order will 
usually be issued in fragmentary form and, initially, may 
designate only the general mission of the platoon, and 
the location of its firing position area (or mobile posi- 
tion) . It may consist of a message transmitted to the pla- 
toon leader while his platoon is en, route to that battle 
position. 

c. If the defensive position is to be occupied at night, 
orders should be issued in time to permit daylight recon- 
naissance by the platoon leader. 

124. RECONNAISSANCE. «. Genera/. While the pla- 
toon leader may be directed to accompany the company 
commander on reconnaissance of the regimental sector 
of the battle position prior to the time the company 
defense order is issued, his reconnaissance usually will 
follow the receipt of the defense order from the company 
commander. Before leaving on reconnaissance, he issues 
any necessary instructions for the forward movement of 
the platoon. If the platoon is to reach the battle position 
prior to completion of reconnaissance by the platoon 
leader for firing positions, guides are sent back to lead 
it to the vicinity of the firing position area, or position 



149 



where it is to be held mobile. If the positions are to be 
occupied during darkness, the selected positions and the 
routes thereto should be marked during daylight; the 
platoon leader designates guides and insures that they 
familiarize themselves with the routes and positions. . 

b. Platoon Emplaced in Firing Position Area With- 
in Defense Area of Front-line Battalion, (j) When 
the platoon has been assigned a firing position area 
within the defense area of a front-line battalion, the 
platoon leader should contact the leader of the battalion 
antitank platoon and effect necessary coordination. He 
seeks to locate — 

(«) Probable avenues of approach for hostile armored 
vehicles. 

(b) Natural and artificial tank obstacles, and areas 
which should be covered by mine fields. 

(c) The position of nearby friendly troops, particu- 
larly the positions and principal directions of fire of 
the battalion antitank platoon, and other nearby anti- 
tank units. 

(d) Cover, primary, and alternate positions, sector of 
responsibility, and principal direction of fire for each 
squad. 

(e) Supplementary and alternate positions for each 
squad. 

(/) Emplacements for rocket, launchers. 

(g) Position (s) for platoon observation post (s) . 
(s) The platoon leader should select squad firing posi- 
tions which permit coordination of fire with nearby anti- 
tank guns. Guns are emplaced to be mutually supporting 
so that when a tank attempts to overrun one gun posi- 
tion it will be engaged in flank by another gun. Guns 
usually are placed not less than 100 yards apart, and 
should be located where they can receive close rifle pro- 
tection. Alternate and supplementary positions must be 
close enough to the primary firing positions for move- 



ISO 



ment of the guns by hand. The platoon's firing positions 
must he coordinated with those of the guns of the bat- 
talion antitank platoon and nearby rocket teams, so that 
hostile tanks will be compelled to advance against an 
effective volume of frontal and flanking fire. 

c. Platoon not Located Within Battalion Defense 
Area. The procedure described above applies so far as 
applicable when the platoon is assigned a firing position 
area which is not located within a battalion defense 
area. 

d. Platoon held mobile, (i) When the platoon is 
to be held mobile, the company commander will inform 
the platoon leader of its probable missions, and the areas 
in which its employment is contemplated. Unless other- 
wise directed by the company commander, the platoon 
leader promptly initiates reconnaissance to locate tenta- 
tive firing position areas from which the probable mis- 
sions can be accomplished, and the most suitable routes 
for movement thereto (see fig. 18) . The scope of the 
reconnaissance of each Firing position area is similar to 
that described in b(i) above. 

(2) Missions assigned to die platoon may include pro- 
tection of the regimental reserve while the latter is in 
the assembly area, and reinforcements of its antimech- 
anized defenses when it occupies battle positions. Close 
cooperation between the platoon leader and the anti- 
tank officer of the reserve battalion is essential; whenever 
practicable, they should reconnoiter and develop their 
plans togedter. Coordination must also be established 
with the leader of any nearby tank destroyer" unit. 

125. FIRE PLAN. The platoon leader formulates his 
fire plan and, when time permits, submits it to the com- 
pany commander for approval, usually in the form of an 
overlay or sketch. This should show the location of all 
nearby mine fields and other antitank obstacles, both 



151 




Figure 18. Guns held mobile, prepared to move to firing positions. 
Foliage in figure has been cut away to show initial locations of guns. 



natural and artificial; the sector of responsibility, prin- 
cipal direction of fire, and primary, supplementary and 
alternate positions of each gun; rocket launcher em- 
placements, and the positions and directions of fire of 
nearby antitank guns of other units. 

126. ORDERS, a. After receiving the order of the com- 
pany commander, the platoon leader issues his orders 
at a location from which he can point out to each squad 
leader the position the squad is to occupy, and its sector 
of responsibility and principal direction of fire. If no 
single location provides the requisite field of view, it 
may be necessary to issue orders to individual squad 
leaders in their respective areas. The order covers the 
following: 

(i) Necessary information of the enemy and friendly 
troops, to include — 

(a) Types of enemy tanks operating in the vicinity. 

(b) Proposed movement and plan of action of friend- 
ly tanks operating in the vicinity, their identifying marks, 
and signals. 

(c) The challenge signal (if prescribed) to be used 
in requiring that tanks believed to be friendly identify 
themselves. 

(d) Locations of friendly troops, mine fields, and 
other antitank obstacles; locations, missions, and fields 
of fire of nearby antitank guns and rocket teams. 

(3) Mission (s) of the platoon. 

(3) Instructions for each squad, to include — 

(a) Location of cover, primary, and alternate posi- 
tions, principal direction of fire, and sector of re- 
sponsibility, 

(b) Conditions governing opening of fire. 

(c) Location of supplementary and alternate posi- 
tions, and conditions under which they are to be oc- 
cupied. 



153 



(d) Employment of rocket teams. 

(e) Construction (to include priorities) of emplace- 
ments and fox holes, concealment and camouflage, con- 
struction of dummy positions, if any. 

(/) Establishment of liaison with nearby units. 

(4) Ammunition supply, amounts to be placed at firing 
positions, location of company ammunition supply point, 
disposition of vehicles, and location of aid station which 
the platoon is to utilize. 

(5) Location of platoon leader, location of company 
command post and command post (s) of nearby unit (s) , 
any warning signals, or other pertinent details of the 
warning service, not covered by standing operating pro- 
cedure; pertinent extracts from signal operation instruc- 
tions, such as call names, prearranged message code, map 
coordinate code, and pyrotechnic signals. 

b. If the platoon sergeant is not present when the 
platoon leader issues bis orders, the latter acquaints him 
with its contents at the earliest opportunity. 

127. OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATION OF FIR- 
ING POSITIONS, o. Guns are uncoupled as near to 
the cover positions as practicable, and placed in im- 
mediate readiness for action in temporary firing posi- 
tions. Observers are posted. Construction of emplace- 
ments, fox holes and ammunition shelters, and measures 
for concealment and camouflage are carried out accord- 
ing to the priorities prescribed in the orders of the pla- 
toon leader. The platoon leader exercises supervision 
to insure that the terrain is used to best advantage, and 
that the work on the position progresses without loss of 
time or wasted effort. He makes an inspection when the 
work is completed, and orders any necessary changes. 

b. When time permits, dummy works may be con- 
structed. These should be located at least 150 vards from 



154 



any true position, so that (ire directed at them will not 
include occupied areas. 

c. If time is pressing, the platoon leader may designate 
the general locations of firing positions for the squads. 
Squad leaders then determine the exact locations of such 
positions for their respective guns. 

rf. If the defense area must be occupied under hostile 
artillery fire or air attack, cevered locations may initially 
be selected and occupied, and organization of exposed 
positions either postponed until dark or completed piece- 
meal by daylight. 

e. If the platoon is held mobile, emplacements for 
primary, supplementary, and alternate positions in all 
•selected firing position areas should be constructed and 
camouflaged, and the routes thereto marked, if necessary. 

128. CONDUCT OF DEFENSE, a. During combat, the 
platoon leader takes position where he can best observe 
and control the action of his platoon. This position 
should, if practicable, permit easy communication with 
the company commander. If the width of the platoon 
sector of responsibility is' great, he may assign a portion 
of the sector to the platoon sergeant for supervision and 
control. 

b. Unless terrain or reduced visibility necessitate ini- 
tial occupation of firing positions, cover positions are 
occupied until warning of a hostile tank attack is re- 
ceived, at which time firing positions are occupied. After 
a hostile, tank attack is launched, the platoon leader can 
have little influence on the course of action. Hostile 
armored vehicles appearing in a squad sector of respon- 
sibility are fired upon as soon as they come within the 
range or pass the limiting features designated by the 
platoon leader, and are held under constant fire until 
they are destroyed or neutralized, or pass beyond effec- 
tive range. Rockets and grenades should be employed 



155 



against tanks approaching from directions other than 
those in which the guns are firing, as well as in areas 
which cannot be covered, by the guns. (See par. 112.) 
Guns are moved to alternate positions during lulls in 
the firing. 

c. A platoon held mobile remains alerted in the ini- 
tial position until the extent and direction of the hostile 
tank attack is determined. The decision to move a 
mobile platoon to a firing position area is made by the 
regimental commander or by die battalion commander 
if the platoon is attached or may be delegated to the anti- 
tank company commander. On receipt of the order or 
signal announcing this decision, the platoon moves 
rapidly over the reconnoitered route to the designated 
firing position area. The platoon leader precedes the 
platoon by the fastest available means in order to select 
the firing positions to be occupied by each gun, if not 
already selected. This information is given promptly to 
the squad leaders. Squads move without halting to the 
designated firing positions and execute their fire missions 
as described in b above. 

129. ANTIAIRCRAFT SECURITY. For antiaircraft se- 
curity, see paragraph 53. 

130. LOCAL SECURITY. For local security, sec para- 
graphs 15 and 16. 

131. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. For ammunition supply, 

see paragraph 21. 

132. SPECIAL OPERATIONS. For discussions of the 
employment of the antitank platoon in defense in woods, 
of towns, of a river line, against airborne operations, in 
desert operations, and in mountain operations, see para- 
graphs 91 to g6 inclusive. 



156 



SECTION V 
RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS 



133. NIGHT WITHDRAWAL, a. Prior to a night with 
drawaf, a company warning order is, if practicable, 
issued in time to permit each platoon leader to perform 
3 daylight reconnaissance. This order covers the time of 
commencement of the withdrawal, location of the com- 
pany assembly area, and any other necessary details. 
Upon receipt of die order, the platoon leader promptly 
initiates a reconnaissance of route (s) to the "designated 
assembly area. If a defensive action is in progress at the 
time, he remains with his platoon, and delegates this 
reconnaissance to an appropriate individual, usually the 
platoon sergeant. 

b. If the platoon position is within the defense area 
of a frontline battalion, the platoon is attached to that 
battalion for the withdrawal, and released at the anti- 
tank company assembly area. The platoon leader receives 
instructions as to the time and other details of the with- 
drawal from the battalion commander. 

c. Prime movers are brought forward under company 
control after dark to locations as close in rear of firing 
positions as practicable. Guns are moved by hand to the 
prime movers at the prescribed time, and proceed, 
coupled, to tire company assembly area. All movements 
must be conducted quietly and without lights. (See 
par. 88.) 

d. During further withdrawal, the platoon may be 
given the mission of covering one or more road blocks 
protecting the flanks of tire route of withdrawal. At- 
tached riflemen, or members of the platoon armed with 
rifles or carbines, are so placed as to provide close-in pro- 
tection to the guns and prevent dismounted enemy per- 
is? 



<i\ from removing the road blocks. Defending per- 
inel are usually located closer to a road block, at night 
nan (hiring daylight; care must be exercised, however, 
that they are beyond grenade throwing distance. 

134. DAYLIGHT WITHDRAWAL, cr. In a daylight 
withdrawal, quick decisions, clear orders, and prompt 
action by all leaders ate essential. Time is visually not 
available for reconnaissance prior to the commencement 
of the withdrawal. A platoon located in the defense area 

. of a frontline battalion is attached to that battalion until 
completion of the initial withdrawal to the location of 
the regimental covering force, when it reverts to com- 
pany control. Thereafter, it may be employed with the 
regimental covering force, or with a flank guard. Prime 
movers are brought forward, by infiltration, under com- 
pany control (see par. 8oe) . Upon receipt of warning 
orders for a withdrawal, the platoon leader immediately 
contacts the battalion commander for further orders. 

.fa. If a platoon is to be detached from the company 
to operate with the regimental . covering force or flank 
guard, the platoon leader promptly dispatches available 
personnel, usually under the direction of the platoon 
sergeant, to contact the commander of the force, obtain 
instructions, select firing positions to carry out the mis- 
sions assigned, and guide the elements of the platoon to 
the selected locations. The guns are moved to a defiladed 
coupling position by hand, thence, by prime mover to 
join the covering force or flank guard. The operations 
of the platoon, after joining the covering force or flank 
guard, are conducted as for a delaying action. (See par. 
135-) 

135. DELAYING ACTION, a. Platoons located in front- 
line battalion areas are attached to battalions in whose 
areas they are located. If possible, firing positions are 



158 



located near topographical crests, with prime movers 
near the gun positions, and concealed behind the crest, 
in order to facilitate withdrawal. Guns are sited so that 
their fire will force the enemy to leave the roads, thus 
slowing down his mechanized advance, and causing him 
to expend time-consuming preparations for attack. The 
firing- position is selected to favor long-range fires. Guns 
open fire at the earliest moment that promises effect 
against the type of hostile armored vehicle employed, 
as well as such secondary targets as automatic weapons 
and groups of personnel. 

b. When the platoon is attached to a battalion, or to 
a regimental security element, early reconnaissance of 
routes of withdrawal and of rear positions is initiated by 
the platoon leader. If not so attached, reconnaissance is 
effected by the company commander, as described in 
paragraph 90c, 

c. If the prime movers can be retained close to the 
gun positions, an amount of ammunition sufficient only 
for the immediate mission is unloaded and placed at 
these positions. If practicable, withdrawals to rear posi- 
tions are usually made by leapfrogging squads, so that 
a part of tire platoon is constantly prepared to engage 
hostile mechanized elements. 



159 



CHAPTER 8 
THE ANTITANK SQUAD 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

136. COMPOSITION. The antitank squad consists of a 
squad leader, gunner, four cannoneers, three ammuni- 
tion bearers, and one truck driver who is also an am- 
munition bearer. 

137. DUTIES, a. Squad Leader. The squad leader is 
responsible, under such orders as he may receive from 
the platoon leader, for tire training, discipline, control, 
and proper execution of all missions of his squad. Tn 
combat, his duties include — 

(i) Selection of firing positions (primary, supple- 
mentary, and alternate) and cover positions, if not 
already prescribed by the platoon leader; supervision of 
construction of emplacements and fox holes, and of 
measures for concealment and camouflage. 

(a) Supervision of movement of gun into position (s) , 
and preparations for firing. 

(3) Fire direction and control. Selection of terrain fea- 
tures or maximum ranges limiting the opening of fire, 
jf not already prescribed by the platoon leader. 



160 



(4) Preparation in duplicate of a range card of his 
assigned sector, as well as adjacent and rear sectors, 
which can be covered by fire from or near his firing 
position. Data on range cards should include reference 




Figure kj. Range card prepared by squad leader. 

points and ranges thereto (see fig. 19) . One copy of the 
range card is sent to the platoon leader. 

(5) Supervision of ammunition supply, to include keep- 
ing the platoon leader informed of the amounts of am- 
munition on hand. 

(6) Security. Posting of an air-antitank guard to warn 
of the approach of hostile armored vehicles, airplanes, or 
foot troops. 



161 



(7) Designation of rocket teams. 

(8) Coordination of the fire of his gun, and the small- 
arms fire of the squad, to include that of antitank rockets 
and rifle grenades, with the fire of nearby units, as di- 
rected by the platoon leader, or, if not so directed, on 
his own initiative. 

b. Truck Driver. The driver of the squad prime 
mover operates his vehicle in compliance with the in- 
structions of the squad leader, except when it is under 
the control of the platoon- sergeant. He is responsible 
for driver maintenance of the vehicle, for concealing and 
camouflaging it at all halts, and for defending it with 
his individual weapon against attacks by hostile armored 
vehicles, airplanes, or patrols. When at a halt and in the 
absence of other personnel, he is prepared to operate 
the caliber .50 machine gun, when the machine gun is 
allotted to his truck. (See par. lb.) When the prime 
mover is located close enough to the gun position for 
visual signaling between the squad. leader and the truck 
driver, the latter will take a position where he can 
observe arm-and-hand signals from the squad leader. 
He provides for his own protection by digging a fox 
hole near the vehicle. If his presence is not required at 
the truck, he acts as an ammunition bearer when the 
situation so demands, 

c. Other Individuals. The gunner and cannoneers 
operate the gun. The ammunition bearers supply the 
gun with ammunition and assist the gunner and can- 
noneers when it is moved by hand. For details of their 
duties, see FM 23-75. 

138. COMMUNICATION. Communication within the 
squad is effected by voice or arm-and-hand signals. Com- 
munication with the platoon leader, or commander of 
a unit to which the squad is attached, may be by arrn- 
and- hand ot other prearranged signals, or by messengers. 



162 



When the situation does not call for frequent movement, 
the next higher leader may establish communication 
with the squad by sound-powered telephone, (See par. 
loa.) 



SECTION II 
TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT 



139. MISSIONS, a. While in the combat zone, the anti- 
tank squad is employed to assist in furnishing anti- 
mechanized protection to a designated portion of the 
regiment, whether the latter is advancing in a route 
march or an approach march, occupies a bivouac or 
assembly area, or is engaged in an attack, in defense of 
a position, in a withdrawal, in a delaying action, or in 
special operations. It may also be employed in secondary 
missions, such as firing on hostile antitank guns and 
other located crew-served weapons, emplacements, pill 
boxes or other point targets. The squad ordinarily func- 
tions as a part of the platoon, and is assigned missions 
by the platoon leader. Occasionally, however, it may be 
detached from the platoon, in which case, the squad 
leader receives his orders directly from the antitank com- 
pany commander, or, if the squad is attached to a unit, 
from the commander of that unit. If two squads of the 
platoon are detached for a special mission, they will 
usually be commanded by the platoon leader or the 
platoon sergeant. If only one squad is detached, the 
squad leader, in the absence of both the platoon leader 
and the platoon sergeant, executes the reconnaissance 
and other duties of the platoon leader so far as they 
apply to his squad. 



163 



b. In most situations, the mission assigned the squad 
will be to occupy a designated firing position and de- 
stroy or neutralize all hostile armored vehicles approach- 
ing in an assigned sector of responsibility, and from 
specified directions, if prescribed, in adjacent sectors. 
The order assigning the mission designates a principal 
direction of (ire within the squad sector of responsibility. 
Instructions frequently include restrictions on opening 
fire against single or small groups of annored vehicles 
engaged on reconnaissance or acting as decoys. 

e. Since the squad will frequently be located at a 
considerable distance from the platoon leader, with only 
limited means oE communication, the squad leader, par- 
ticularly while a hostile tank attack is in progress, will 
often be faced with situations requiring a decision on 
his part before instruction can be secured from, the 
former. In such situations he must act aggressively, dis- 
playing initiative, good judgment, and prompt decision. 

140. POSITIONS. For definitions of primary, supple- 
mentary, and alternate tiring positions, cover position, 
uncoupling position, and firing position area, see para- 
graph 6. 

141. METHODS OF MOVEMENT. 0. The squad prime 
movers are used to tow the guns and to carry the crews, 
ammunition, and accessories on the march, and in cross- 
country movement, whenever the situation permits. On 
difficult ground, men may be required to dismount and 
assist the vehicles; squat! leaders precede the vehicles on 
foot in order to select the best route. For field expedients 
to assist motor movement in difficult terrain, see FM 
25-10. For stream crossing expedients, sec appendix If. 

b. The gun will be moved by the prime mover as far 
forward as possible, usually to a designated cover posi- 
tion; movements from cover to primary firing positions, 



164 



or from primary to alternate firing positions, are executed 
by hand. Movement of the gun from a cover position, or 
from primary or alternate firing positions, to supple- 
mentary firing positions are usually executed by hand. 
If the prime mover is lost or destroyed, or the nature of 
the terrain, or the intensity of hostile fire makes move- 
ment by the prime mover impossible, the squad leader 
must show ingenuity and aggressiveness, and take active 
steps to secure any necessary assistance from other troops 
or vehicles. The squad must be so trained that loss or 
destruction of the prime mover will not result in im- 
mobilization of the gun. 

142. SQUAD HELD MOBILE. A squad held mobile 
goes into action on orders of the platoon leader, or in 
accordance with a prearranged plan. It is assigned a 
covered and concealed position, preferably centrally 
located, from which it can move quickly to firing posi- 
tion areas by covered routes. It will usually be assigned 
two or more firing position areas. Each firing position 
area and route thereto must be reconnoitered promptly. 
Firing positions are selected; if time permits, emplace- 
ments are constructed. During the period in which the 
squad is held mobile, the squad leader posts observers, 
who give warning of the approach of hostile tanks far 
enough in advance for the squad to go into action. 

143. RECONNAISSANCE AND OCCUPATION OF 
FIRING POSITION, a. (i) The platoon leader fre- 
quently assigns the squad a covered and concealed loca- 
tion to be occupied while he completes his reconnais- 
sance. He may direct the squad to move to this location 
independently, or under control of the platoon sergeant. 
While en route to this location, or shortly after arrival 
thereat, the squad leader may be summoned to join the 
platoon leader for orders. If summoned while cn route, 

145 



he turns over the command of the squad to the gunner, 
and gives him instructions concerning the route and 
destination. Orders to the squad leader include the mis- 
sion o£ the squad, and its firing position, cover position, 
sector of responsibility, and principal direction of fire 
within the sector. Having received his orders, the squad 
leader returns to the squad and directs the movement 
to the firing position. 

(s) If a firing position area only has been assigned, the 
squad leader must conduct a reconnaissance to select 
firing positions. When there is danger of an immediate 
attack, he will direct that the gun be brought forward 
and set up in a temporary firing position while he com- 
pletes his reconnaissance. As soon as time permits, he 
selects supplementary and alternate positions, including 
covered routes thereto, in addition to primary firing 
positions. When necessary, he selects a position lor the 
air-antitank guards. 

b. The squad leader supervises the construction and 
concealment of emplacements and fox holes He dis- 
patches the prime mover to a nearby covered and con- 
cealed location, and insures that the vehicle, emplace- 
ment, and fox holes are properly concealed and camou- 
flaged. He insures that sufficient ammunition to meet the 
estimated needs in the particular situation is stored at 
the firing position, and is so placed as to avoid inter- 
ference with the employment of the gun. 

C. The squad leader issues his order to all members 
of the squad at the earliest practicable moment after 
occupation of the position. If practicable, he selects a 
vantage point from which to orient the squad and issue 
his orders. Such a point must afford observation of the 
area to be covered by the fire of the squad. When it is 
impracticable to issue the order to all members of the 
squad, the leader insures that it is issued to the gunner, 
and to such other members as the situation permits. 



166 



The order should include all items of the platoon 
leader's order which pertain to the squad (see pars, no 
and 126) . 

</• In moving to firing positions, squads make full 
use of cover and concealment in order to get their 
weapons into action without being discovered by the 
enemy. Ammunition bearers usually remain in cover 
positions when, not delivering ammunition. 

144. LOCAL SECURITY. 0. When the gun is advanc- 
ing by prime mover through areas where hostile patrols 
and other small enemy groups or individuals, such as 
snipers, may be encountered, members of the squad may 
move on foot to the front and flanks of the vehicle for 
more effective close-in defense. When halted, protection 
is provided by rifles, carbines, and rocket launchers, sup- 
plemented, if necessary, by the antitank rifle grenade fire 
of the truck driver. The machine gun (one per platoon) 
may be used for protection against either ground troops 
or aircraft. 

b. For close-in defense against mechanized attack, see 
paragraph 15. 

c. For local security when the squad is in a firing 
position, see paragraph 103. 

145. ACTION AGAINST HOSTILE MECHANIZED 
ATTACK, a. Guns occupy cover positions until armored 
attack becomes imminent, and its direction is deter- 
mined. They are then moved to their primary or sup- 
plementary positions, depending on the direction of the 
attack. If the primary or supplementary positions can- 
not be occupied because of hostile fire, alternate posi- 
tions will be occupied. 

b„ rjurjng the fire fight, there is a strong tendency 
for all members of the squad to concentrate their atten- 
tion on the tank at which the gun is firing. The squad 



167 



leader, by prior orders and supervision, must insure that 
some member (s) of the squad maintain continual all 
around observation to prevent a surprise attack by tanks 
approaching from the Hanks or rear, or from immo- 
bilized tanks which are still able to fire. (See par. log.) 
Any sign that immobilized tanks are preparing to con- 
tinue the fight, such as rotation of the turret, should be 
brought to the immediate attention of the squad leader; 
additional fire should be directed at such tanks at the 
earliest practicable moment. 

c. Fire, once opened, is not interrupted while hostile 
tanks remain within range. When movement to an alter- 
nate position becomes necessary, this should be effected 
during lulls in the fire fight. 

d. The squad leader must at all times keep himself 
informed of the status of ammunition supply, and ar- 
range for timely replenishment. 

146. DISPLACEMENTS, a. General. The platoon 
leader's order usually prescribes whether the platoon will 
displace as a unit or by squad echelon, whether the dis- 
placement is to be made coupled or by hand, and, if by 
hand, the disposition of the vehicles. Unless the squad 
is detached from its platoon, the squad leader commences 
each displacement on the order o£ the platoon leader. 
The time, conditions, or signal for the displacement are 
prescribed by the platoon leader prior to his reconnais- 
sance for new firing position areas. When a signal is to 
be used, the squad leader is informed of the locality from 
which to expect such signal, arid either watches for it 
personally, or designates a member of the squad to do 
so. Frequently, the platoon leader requires that the 
squad advance along a specified route or to a designated 
point while he is engaged in reconnaissance. In such a 
case, he will, upon completion of the reconnaissance, 



168 



send a guide to meet the squad, or mark the route in 
order to insure that the squad will reach its new posi- 
tion area. (See par. 114.) 

b. During Marches. In displacements during the 
route or approach march, the squad leader precedes the 
squad. He reconnoiters for crossings or minor detours 
by which the prime movers may pass obstacles. (See 
figs. 9 and so.) He detours the squad around gassed' 
areas and areas being shelled. In order to cross dangerous 
areas, such as roads or ridges, which are exposed to 
hostile observation or are being shelled, he may direct 
that members of the squad dismount and cross the area 
by infiltration or by a single rush. The prime mover 
follows at high speed. Movements of the squad are 
usually controlled by arm-and-hand or other prearranged 
signals. 

c. During Combat. In displacements during the fire 
fight, advantage is taken of all available covered routes. 
Upon arrival at the uncoupling position, the squad 
leader directs that the gun be moved immediately into 
the firing or cover position. If the platoon leader has 
designated only a firing position area, the squad leader 
will select a temporary cover or firing position for the 
gun, and direct the gunner to move the gun thereto and 
to post an air-antitank guard, while he (the squad 
leader) makes a reconnaissance of the area. He then 
directs the gun to be moved, if necessary, into a more 
suitable position, and completes all other preparations 
to meet a hostile mechanized attack. 

d. Detached Squad. When the squad is detached 
from the platoon, or on other occasions when the time 
and method of displacement arc to be determined by 
the squad leader, he should precede the squad and con- 
duct a reconnaissance similar to that conducted by the 
platoon leader (see also pars. 106, 109, 113, and 124). 



169 



147. REORGANIZATION, a. The squad, leader must 
reorganize his squad whenever disorganization prevents 
its further effective employment as a fighting unit. He 




Figure 20. Reconnaissance of route. Failure to reconnoiler causes 
delay while searching for passable routes. Prior reconnaissance results 
in prompt movement. 

replaces key men who have become casualties. He re- 
ports the strength of the squad and ammunition require- 
ments to the platoon leader, or, if the squad is detached 
from the platoon, to the commander of the unit to which 



170 



it is attached. He may call on the truck driver, if within 
signaling distance, to assist in the operation of the gun; 
if the squad becomes so reduced by casualties that it can 
no longer keep the gun in action, he calls on nearby 
rifle units for assistance. 

b. After issuing his orders for reorganization, the 
squad leader makes a brief reconnaissance to the front 
and flanks to observe the area over which the squad may 
be ordered to advance or withdraw, in order to select 
the best available routes. 

148. COVERING AN OBSTACLE, a. An antitank 
squad (reinforced if necessary) is frequently detailed to 
cover an obstacle with fire. (See fig. 22.) The gun is 
located to cover the avenue of approach of hostile tanks, 
as well as adjacent areas into which they are likely to 
be diverted by the road block, mines, or gun fire. Rocket 
teams supplement gun fire on these targets, and also pro- 
tect the gun and crew from tanks approaching from the 
flanks and rear. Grenadiers of any reinforcing rifle ele- 
ments supplement this local protection; riflemen and 
machine guns cover the obstacle and its flanks, to pre- 
vent dismounted personnel from removing the obstacle. 
They also protect the gun and crew from attacking foot 
troops. If security vehicles accompany or precede the 
hostile tanks, they are engaged by rocket teams, rifle- 
men, machine guns, and, if within range, by grenadiers. 

b. The riflemen covering the obstacle are concealed 
from hostile observation and placed at such distance 
from the obstacle as to be outside the zone of dispersion 
of artillery fire or dive bombing directed at die obstacle 
(200 to 400 yards) . After dark, the men occupy positions 
closer to the obstacle; such positions must be beyond 
hand-grenade throwing distance from the obstacle. 

C. When the squad is protecting a mine field, the 
squad leader establishes guards over the mined area to 
prevent casualties to friendly troops and vehicles. 



171 



CHAPTER 9 
ANTITANK MINE PLATOON 



SECTION I 
GENERAL 

149. COMPOSITION, a. The antitank mine platoon 
consists of a command group (headquarters) and three 
antitank mine squads. 

b. Command Group. The command group consists 
of the platoon leader, platoon sergeant, surveyor, topo- 
graphic draftsman, and three truck drivers. 

c. Antitank Mine Squad. The antitank mine squad 
consists of a squad leader and seven pioneers. 

o". Armament, Equipment, and Transport, For arma- 
ment, equipment, and transport, see Table of Organiza- 
tion and Equipment. 

150. DUTIES OF PERSONNEL, a. Command Group. 

(1) PLATOON LEADER. The platoon leader com- 
mands the antitank mine platoon and is responsible for 
its training, discipline, and control. He employs it ac- 
cording to instructions from the company commander 
or other officer under whom the platoon or its elements 
may be operating. In combat, he is responsible for the 
preparation and prompt transmittal to the company 



172 



commander of reports, based upon accurate surveys, 
which record the locations of all mines laid by the 
platoon. He also submits reports when mine fields or 
mine road blocks are removed by the platoon. Until 
relieved of responsibility by higher authority, he is re- 
sponsible for maintaining traffic guards near mine dumps 
and mines laid or taken over by the platoon, in order 
to prevent casualties to friendly troops or vehicles, 
(a) PLATOON SERGEANT. The platoon sergeant, 
the second-in-command, assists the platoon leader and 
replaces him if he becomes a casualty; he may be directed 
by the platoon leader to supervise the resupply of mines 
to the platoon, or the recovery of previously laid mines. 

(3) SURVEYOR AND TOPOGRAPHIC DRAFTS- 
MAN. The surveyor and the topographic draftsman, 
under the direction of the platoon leader, stake out on 
the ground the designated lines along which mine fields 
are to be laid; make accurate surveys, prepare sketches, 
and keep records of all antitank mine fields laid by the 
platoon. They also determine on the ground, from maps 
or reports furnished to them, the precise location of 
mines previously laid by other units. 

(4) TRUCK DRIVERS. The truck drivers operate the 
trucks assigned to platoon headquarters. They are re- 
sponsible for driver maintenance of their vehicles, for 
their camouflage and concealment when halted, and for 
their protection against attack. 

b. Anfitank Mine Squad, (i) SQUAD LEADER, 
(a) The squad leader is responsible, under the direction 
of the platoon leader, for the training, discipline, and 
control of his squad, and for the proper execution of 
all missions assigned to it. He employs the squad under 
the direction of the platoon leader or the commander 
of a unit to which it is attached. He indicates to the 
members of the squad the area in which they are to be 
employed, and supervises their work. He must be 



173 



familiar with the safety factors which limit the distance 
at which mines should be located from friendly per- 
sonnel (see also par. 166) . 

(b) When the squad is attached to a unit, he must 
be prepared to act as an advisor to the commander of 
that unit on matters concerning the employment of 
antitank mines. 

(a) PIONEERS. The members of the squad, classified 
as pioneers, are employed in laying, marking, and regis- 
tering mine fields; in disarming, lifting;, and destroying 
activated antitank and antipersonnel mines ancl booby 
traps of all types used by friendly and enemy troops; 
and in gapping extensive mine fields. They arc trained 
as riflemen in order that they may be used to protect 
mine fields, road blocks, and other obstacles. 

SECTION II 

ANTITANK MINE EQUIPMENT AND 
SUPPLY 

151. ANTITANK MINES. An antitank mine is a type 
of land mine designed for use against mechanized ve- 
hicles. An antitank mine which has been fuzed and the 
safety devices released is armed. An antitank mine is 
activated when it is equipped with a supplementary fir- 
ing device which explodes the mine either by movement 
of the mine or by disturbance of a tripwire. For a de- 
scription of antitank mines, including assembly, dis- 
assembly, care in handling, burying and camouflaging, 
and packing and marking, sec FM 5-30. 

152. OTHER MATERIEL EMPLOYED AS ANTITANK 

MINES, a. In addition to its use as a projectile when 



174 



fired from the launcher, the antitank rocket, 2.36 inch, 
may be prepared for firing electrically and used as an 
improvised mine. For preparation of the rocket for fir- 
ing, see FM 23-30. The rocket may be placed in a road- 
bed, or set horizontally in the side of a cut or bank. 

b. Bangalore Torpedo. For use of the Bangalore 
torpedo as an antitank mine, see FM 5-30. 

153. EQUIPMENT FOR LAYING MINES. The follow 
ing items of equipment are available within the infantry 
regiment for use in surveying mine fields and preparing 
reports of mine field locations, and as pioneer tools for 
burying, camouflaging, or recovering the mines, and for 
clearing lines of sight for the surveyor: 

a. Sketching Equipment. For description, see FM 
21-35. 

fa. timing Circle, M7 lor M79I6 or M 797647 1. 

This instrument is used for measuring azimuths and 
angles in the surveying of mine fields. 

c. Protractors. Used in plotting angles. 

d. 50-foot Metallic Tape, 

e. Tope, Wftfte Tracing, and Flag Sets. Used in 
marking the outline of mine fields and gaps in mine 
fields. 

f. Pioneer Equipment. Axes, picks, shovels, sandbags, 
saws, brushhooks, machetes, and demolition equipment 
sets. 

154. ANTITANK MINE SUPPLY, a. When the regiment 
receives a supply of antitank mines, a running account 
of receipts and expenditures is maintained by the regi- 
mental munitions officer, under the supervision of S-4, 
and coordinated with S-3. The mine platoon leader 
keeps a similar record. This is to insure against failure 
to account for any mines which have been laid and sub- 
sequently ordered to be recovered, since each unre- 



175 



covered mine may endanger friendly troops and ve- 
hicles. The account should show at all times the number 
of mines on hand, together with the dates of receipts 
and expenditures thereof. Since mines are repeatedly 
laid and recovered in combat, the account should ex- 
plain by suitable notation any difference between the 
number laid and the number reclaimed. 

b. The initial supply of antitank mines for the regi- 
ment is carried in the transport of the antitank mine 
platoon. For details of replenishment, see paragraph 
2ib(6) . 

c. The removal and recovery of previously laid mines 
may cause a unit to have more mines than it can trans- 
port. When this occurs, the regimental munitions officer 
should be informed at once of the situation and the 
location of the surplus mines. Pending receipt of in- 
structions as to their disposition, they should be placed 
in small piles, well .dispersed. 

SECTION m 
MINE FIELDS AND ROAD BLOCKS 

155. DELIBERATE MINE FIELDS. A deliberate mine 
field is one which is laid when time permits of extensive 
preparation. The mines are buried and carefully camou- 
flaged. The Field is deep in pattern and normally in- 
cludes, in addition to armed mines, activated and anti- 
personnel mines. The platoon performs the function of 
laying and removing deliberate mine fields under the 
supervision of engineers only, or when operating as part 
of a specially trained infantry unit for this type of 
operation. For deliberate mine field patterns, organiza- 
tion for laying, duties of personnel and operations of 



176 



antitank mine details, camouflage, and removal o£ de- 
liberate mine fields, see FM 5-30. 

156. HASTY MINE FIELDS. A hasty mine field is one 
which is laid in expectation of immediate attack. The 
field is shallow in pattern. Generally, no provision is 
made for burying mines, for activating selected mines, 
or for installing antipersonnel mines. The mines should 
be concealed to the extent that time permits; leaves, 
weeds, or grass are often used for this purpose Laying 
hasty mine fields for its own protection is a primary 
responsibility of the infantry. Each infantry regiment 
and battalion must be able to furnish trained details 
for this purpose (see app. Ill) . For the hasty mine field 
pattern, drills for laying the pattern, organization of an 
antitank mine detail, and duties and methods of opera- 
tion of the lay-out party, surveying party, and laying 
party or parties, see FM 5—30. 

157. DUMMY MINE FIELDS. A dummy mine field is 
an area not actually mined, but so prepared that it will 
appear to be mined to an observer, or on an aerial photo- 
graph. Its primary purpose is to deceive the enemy. Mine 
fields can be simulated by installing either practice 
mines, or imitation mines consisting of circular wooden 
or concrete blocks about eight inches in diameter. Clods 
dug up in a standard mine field pattern and then re- 
placed, thus giving an area the appearance of a mine 
field, require no dummy mines. Dummy mine fields 
should not be too obvious; they should, however, permit 
of detection by hostile observers. 

158. ROAD BLOCKS, cr. General. A road block is an 
obstacle or group of obstacles used to deny enemy ve- 
hicles along a road at and around the block. In a mined 
road block, mines alone may be quickly placed across 



177 



a road and sufficiently beyond to block the movement 
of enemy vehicles, or the road itself may be blocked by 
other obstacles, while the mines are used on one or both 
flanks to prevent vehicles frern detouring around the 
road block. (See FM 5-30.) 

b. Installation. (1) A road block established with 
antitank mines should have a density twice that of a 
normal mine field. The mines may be laid directly on 
the road surface. If the nature of die roadbed and time 
permit, mines are buried. Mines laid on the surface 
should be covered with brush, sandbags, or a strip of 
cloth or canvas, so as to require personnel of an ap- 
proaching hostile vehicle to dismount in order to de- 
termine the nature of the block by close inspection. If 
the enemy has become accustomed to encountering road 
blocks of this type, the mere placing of the camouflaged 
material, without mines, may suffice to cause enemy 
vehicles to halt, thus exposing them to die fire of the 
defenders. (See fig. si.) 

(a) In some cases, an and tank mine laying detail may 
be called upon to prepare to block roads at previously 
designated points, the actual blocking to be effected 
upon order, or upon the approach of the enemy. In such 
instances, the necessary personnel and antitank mines 
are left at the designated location (s) , the mines being 
held in readiness. This action permits the uninterrupted 
use of the road by friendly troops until the moment 
arrives for placing the block. 

159. BARRIERS. A barrier is defined as a large system 
of bands and zones of obstacles. (See FM 5-30.) Barriers 
are especially useful in creating relatively impassable 
regions over large ground areas. From the viewpoint of 
the antitank mine platoon, a barrier consists of mine 
fields and road blocks laid in gaps between natural or 
other artificial antitank obstacles so as to offer a con- 



178 



tinuous obstruction to the passage of hostile armored 
vehicles. 



160. PROTECTION AGAINST HOSTILE INTERFER- 
ENCE, a. A mine field must be defended by fire to be 
effective. Undefended mine fields delay the enemy only 




Figure 21. Hasty road blocks and simulated road block. Distances are 
schematic. 



for the relatively short time it takes to bypass them or 
to remove enough mines to permit passage. 

b. The leader of an antitank mine platoon or squad 
is responsible for the defense against enemy interference 
of each mine field or mined road block installed or taken 
over by his element, until relieved of this responsibility 
by higher authority (see par. 150). The defending per- 
son 11 el occupy covered and concealed positions from 
which they can observe the mined area and prevent by 
fire any attempt to remove or destroy the mines (see 
fig. 22) . When practicable, antitank gun elements should 
be available to destroy or neutralize hostile armored 



179 




Figure 22. Road block covered by gun and small-arms fire. Gun cov- 
ers road and other tank approaches. Small-arms fire covers road block 
and mines, preventing their removal, and also protects gun and crew 
from enemy foot troops. Rocket teams, located in or near small-arms 
positions supplement the gun fire and also protect the gun and crew 
against hostile tank attacks from the flanks and rear. Rifle grenadiers, 
if employed, supplement such protection. 



180 



vehicles disabled or slowed down by mine fields or mined 
road blocks. (See FM 7-30.) 

161. SAFEGUARDING FRIENDLY TROOPS OR VE- 
HICLES. An antitank mine field, mined road block, or 
other barrier is potentially as dangerous to friendly 
troops and vehicles as to those of the enemy. L Safeguards 
must be provided by posting guards and marking the 
mined areas, 

a. Guards. (1) As soon as the antitank mine platoon 
begins the laying of mines, the platoon leader causes 
observers to be posted to warn of enemy approach while 
the work is in progress. When the work is completed, 
or danger of enemy interruption thereto is no longer 
likely, the observers function as guards to warn friendly 
troops of the presence of the mines, and, when necessary, 
guide them through mine-free gaps. These guards are 
maintained until the platoon leader is relieved of this 
responsibility by higher authority. Normally, this re- 
sponsibility will be transferred by higher authority to 
the commander of a unit assigned the mission of cover- 
ing the mined area or road block with fire. 
(2) When contact with the enemy appears to be im- 
minent, the officer or noncommissioned officer of the 
platoon or lesser element charged with protecting mines 
against hostile interference, directs the removal of any 
signs or markers which might disclose the location or 
extent of the mined area, He may substitute guards 
therefor when such action appears necessary. (See (c) 
below.) 

{3) In tactical situations requiring the opening of mine- 
free gaps through friendly or hostile mined areas, each 
passageway must be guarded, in addition to being sign- 
posted, and outlined by guide wire, tracing tape, or 
luminous buttons. On dark nights, when outline markers 
are difficult to see, it is especially important that guides 



181 



be provided to lead friendly troops and vehicles through 
the passageways. These guides must be carefully selected 
lor their dependability, and must be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the boundaries of the passageways. 

b. Mine Field Marking. 0) GENERAL. Mine field 
marking is the responsibility of the unit which lays the 
field. All mine fields are marked as they arc laid. 
(?) STANDARD MARKING SIGNS, (a) Standard 
mine warning signs and- notices will be used. 

(b) The sign MINES DANGER is used to warn when- 
ever mines are present which arc not otherwise marked. 
The sign SAFE LANE is used to mark safe passages, 
through mined areas, 

(c) The standard method of marking mine fields is 
to use a barbed wire fence on which triangular-shaped 
red signs are suspended by one apex at 25-yard intervals. 
II tactical wire fences, such as double-apron or con- 
certina types, serve also as mine field marking fences, 
the markers are placed on them. 

(d) Warning signs should habitually be placed along 
only those parts of a mined area where friendly approach 
is likely and hostile approach unlikely. At times, to ob- 
tain surprise and deception, warning signs may be placed 
to mislead the enemy. Dummy areas, or passages through 
actual mined areas, may be marked to indicatt that they 
are mined. When such deceptive measures are resorted 
to, care must be exercised to see that the markings are 
not too obvious, and that friendly troops are fully in- 
formed of the special marking means used. The use of 
warning signs is especially important for the mined areas 
located around command posts and supply installations 
within friendly lines. 

(3) MINE FIELD MARKING FENCE. The type of 
mine field marking fence erected will vary according to 
current local conditions, 

(a) A forward mine field is marked widi a fence be- 



182 



hind its rear edge. Since the location of the field must 
not be disclosed to the enemy, its forward edge is not 
marked. Isolated inconspicuous markers, such as gasoline 
tins or piles of stones, may be placed forward of the field 
to warn friendly patrols. 

(6) Whenever practicable, all mines laid in rear of 
friendly front lines should be completely enclosed by a 
marking fence consisting of several strands of barbed 
wire. 

(c) Mine field fences must be strong, so they do not 
collapse and leave the mine field unmarked. Concertina 
wire fencing for a mine field must be fastened firmly 
to the ground so that the wind cannot shift sections of 
it. Mine field marking fences must be regularly inspected 
and maintained. The higher command fixes areas of 
responsibility for such maintenance. 

(d) Marking fences completely inclosing mine fields 
are erected around an area larger than that actually 
covered by the mine field so as not to disclose its actual 
boundaries. The boundary fence wire must have changes 
of direction different from the mine field traverses. To 
mislead the enemy, additional wire fences may cross the 
mine field from front to rear in various directions. 

(e) The fence should be so placed with relation to 
a mine field that after friendly troops encounter it there 
will still be sufficient time and room for vehicles and 
personnel to alter their direction of movement before 
encountering the mines. 

(/) In a defensive situation, the tactical barbed wire 
in front of the main line of resistance may also serve as 
part of the marking fence around a mine nelri. In such 
employment, the mine field and the tactical wire each 
protect the other against the actions of the enemy. In 
other situations, such as when mines are laid in an out- 
post area or on an exposed flank where complete fencing 
would aid hostile troops to locate the mined area, a 

183 



low, camouflaged fence to the rear of the field may be 
employed. 



REPORT: LOCATION OF HASTY MINE FIELD 



1. 


ORGANIZATION 


COMPANY A 


2. 


DATE 


II OCTOBER, 1943 


3. 


REFERENCE MAP 


PANTAVIGUA. H20.000 


4. 


PATTERN 


STANDARD HASTY 


5. 


NUMBER OF MINES LAID 


2092 I 



Ienemy ^ 

F 675 FT *=— * A 

^BRIDGE AZTOD 1 1 1 „ , „. 



NOTE: MAGNETIC ahmuth ugeo THR0USHOUT. 
.ALU DISTANCES GIVEN IN FEET. 
REFERENCE LINE ON SKETCH IS ROW ID 
OF STANtWRD HASTY MINE FIELD. 

SIGNATURE Of OFFICER $ifc£«*f&H, 
RANK AND ORGANIZATION CAPT. -g INF. 
PLACE FORLI 



t Figure 23. Report of location of mine field. 

(4) Lanes breached through an enemy mine field are 
carefully marked so that our troops and vehicles may 
pass rapidly and safely. A mined road which has not 
been cleared will be blocked by a strong, improvised 
barrier, made from materials such as tar barrels or logs. 



184 



Signs, visible at. night, indicating that the road is mined 
must be displayed conspicuously on the barrier. Such 
signs should be hooded to shield them from aerial ob- 
servation. 

162. RECORDS OF ANTITANK MINE INSTALLA- 
TIONS, a. Records of the location and extent o£ mined 
areas must be maintained in order to. inform higher 
commanders of the location of the field, prevent casual- 
ties to friendly personnel and vehicles, and facilitate 
removal operations by friendly troops. 

b. The platoon leader must insure that the location 
of any mine field or mined road block laid by the pla- 
toon is recorded with such accuracy that personnel, other 
than those laying the field, can locate each mine with a 
minimum of hazard. A report, usually in the form of a 
sketch, of each mine field or mined road block, is prompt- 
ly transmitted to the company commander for his in- 
formation and that of higher headquarters. Units, other 
than the antitank mine platoon, which may lay mine 
fields, submit similar reports. For a suggested form for 
.such a report, sec figure ag. Removal of each mine field 
or mined road block is also reported. 

SECTION IV 
TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT 

163. GENERAL. The antitank mine is used tactically 
in almost all types of operation, offensive as well as de- 
fensive. It must be regarded as a mobile weapon to be 
readily placed, removed and placed again, in any situa- 
tion where there is a threat of armored attack. 



185 



164. CHARACTERISTICS OF MECHANIZED AT- 
TACK. Open terrain, where fires o£ antitank guns and 
howitzers are likely to be encountered, will usually be 
avoided by mechanized units. For routes of approach, 
tanks seek defiladed or concealed corridors which, serve 
to restrict or prevent the use of the defender's antitank 
weapons. Antitank mines, by blocking those corridors, 
force the hostile tanks into the open, and reduce the 
number of antitank guns required to protect the area. 

165. MISSIONS. O. The missions which may be as- 
signed to the platoon or its elements include — 

(1) Laying of antitank mine fields or preparing mined 
road blocks. This includes the accurate surveying, record- 
ing, reporting, protecting, guarding, and marking of 
such installations. 

(2) Preparation or laying of dummy mine fields, or 
dummy sections of mine fields, and road blocks. 

{3) Removal of mines laid by the platoon or by other 
friendly units, when no longer needed, salvaging un- 
exploded mines, and camouflaging the mine field after 
removal of mines. 

(4) Reconnaissance for enemy mine fields, or furnishing 
technical experts to accompany patrols dispatched for 
such reconnaissance. 

(5) Removal or gapping of enemy mine fields, or as- 
sisting in such operations when so directed. 

b. Elements of the platoon attached to subordinate 
units of the regiment are assigned missions by the com- 
manders of these units. At other times, the mission as- 
signed to the platoon by the company commander may 
require the delivery of mines to the subordinate units 
of the regiment in quantities prescribed by the regi- 
mental commander, and the laying, or assisting in lay- 
ing, of the mines in accordance with orders issued by 
the commanders of the units to which the mines are 

186 



allotted. The platoon may also be ordered to function 
under the direction of the division engineer. If not 
specifically employed on missions as above described, 
the platoon operates under the direction of the company 
commander in accordance with the regimental plan of 
antimechanized defense. 

166. SELECTION OF LOCATIONS FOR MINED 
AREAS, a. At least the general areas in which mines 
are to be laid are prescribed by the company commander 
or other officer from whom the platoon or its elements 
receive their missions. At times, the exact location (s) 
for the mines will be prescribed. When permitted some 
latitude in selecting the exact site, the platoon leader 
(or the leader of a detached element of the platoon) 
must choose a location affording the highest practicable 
degree of coordination with adjacent obstacles, nearby 
antitank guns, and the dispositions of troops able to 
cover the mines with small-arms fire. Care will be ex- 
ercised that mines are not installed too close to positions 
occupied by friendly personnel. (See par, 75d.) 

b. In broken terrain, mine fields should be placed 
across narrow tank approaches in such a way as to block 
further direct advance, and force the hostile tanks which 
continue the advance to emerge from cover to open 
areas within effective range of antitank guns. It is always 
desirable that mine fields be laid so as to force the 
hostile tanks to expose themselves to the flanking fire 
of friendly antitank guns (see fig. 24) . In open terrain, 
where there are few or no obstacles to tank approach, 
the mine field should extend completely around the area 
to be protected, so far as the available number of mines 
permits. Where there are insufficient mines to accomplish 
complete encirclement, mine fields are laid so as to 
canalize attacking tanks into areas where they will en- 



187 




@ Tanks are forced into open, rind come under antitank gunfire. 
Figure 24. Use of mine field in woods. 

188 



:ounter the concentrated fire of the defender's antitank 
weapons. 

167. EMPLOYMENT DURING ROUTE MARCHES AND 
MOTOR MOVEMENTS, a. Route Marches, (i) Dur- 
ing daylight route marches (see par. 27) , members or 
elements of the antitank mine platoon may be attached 
to security units in order to assist in the installation of 
road blocks and local mine fields, or in the removal of 
mines from enemy road blocks. The bulk of the platoon, 
however, ordinarily moves with the main body or motor 
echelon of the regiment, prepared to install mine fields 
or mined road blocks as directed by the company com- 
mander. The platoon leader, accompanied by his survey- 
ing detail, moves with the company commander unless 
otherwise directed. 

(2) During a night route march (see par. 28) , the pla- 
toon usually moves with the remainder of the company 
in the motor echelon of the regiment. 

b. Motor Movements. During motor movements (see 
par. 29) , elements of the platoon may be attached to 
advance, ' flank, or rear guards; the remainder of the 
platoon, if any, moves with the main body of the regi- 
ment, as directed by the company commander. When the 
route is flanked by natural tank obstacles with but few 
openings, mines may be employed to block these open- 
ings before the main body passes them. These mines are 
ordinarily defended by antitank gun elements of the 
company and attached rifle elements. Details from the 
platoon may be left with these forces to assist in remov- 
ing the mines after the column has passed. 

168. EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE OF BIVOUAC OR 
ASSEMBLY AREA. When mines are used in the de- 
fense of a bivouac or assembly area (see fig. 10), mem- 
bers or elements of the platoon may be employed to 



189 



assist in their installation. Mines may also be issued to 
antitank platoons for close-in protection of the guns. 
(See pars. 32, 42, and 52.). 

169. EMPLOYMENT IN OFFENSE. 0. Approach 
March. During the approach march, members or ele- 
ments of the platoon may be attached to security units 
as in the route march. Mines employed are removed 
when no longer necessary to protect die regiment. The 
platoon, less detached elements, usually moves with the 
second echelon of the regiment, prepared to establish 
mine fields or road blocks in any location which may 
be prescribed by the company commander. (See par. 
38.) Protection of the flanks and rear of the regiment is 
of primary importance. 

b. Attack, (1) (a) In the attack, the mine platoon 
is used principally to protect the flanks and rear of the 
attacking echelon of the regiment by establishing hasty 
mine fields or road blocks across likely avenues of ap- 
proach for hostile armored vehicles conducting a counter- 
attack, as such avenues are uncovered by the progress 
of the attacking echelon. (See par. 48.) The platoon 
leader initiates timely reconnaissance of the rear and 
the flanks of the attacking elements, and selects locations 
for such mine fields and road blocks. He dispatches ele- 
ments of the platoon to install the mine fields and road 
blocks when so ordered by the company commander. 

(b) The mine platoon is also employed to remove or 
gap enemy mine fields, and assist in such operations 
when so ordered. The platoon leader initiates a recon- 
naissance for enemy mine fields, or furnishes personnel 
to accompany patrols dispatched for that purpose. 
(2) Roads entering the flanks or rear of the regimental 
zone of action will usually be the only feasible routes by 
which hostile armored vehicles can interfere with a night 
advance of the regiment to positions from which it can 



190 



launch a dawn attack. During the attack, such roads, 
particularly those leading to, or toward, regimental com- 
mand posts and administrative installations, must be 
blocked to halt such armored vehicles as may have ef- 
fected penetrations through friendly units on the flanks 
of the regiment. Roads extending in the direction of 
the attack may require blocking to halt hostile counter- 
attacks on forward elements. The regimental plan of 
antimechanized defense may stipulate that the platoon 
block these roads, or that it be prepared to do so either 
upon order or upon the approach of the enemy. As in 
the case of flank and rear approaches, the platoon leader 
initiates early reconnaissance for likely locations for 
road blocks. 

(3) As the attack progresses, the platoon moves by 
bounds from one terrain feature to another. 

c. Reorganization, The platoon or elements thereof 
may be directed to employ mines to assist in protecting 
the reorganization of the regiment. (See par. 57.) Dur- 
ing this period, if time permits, reorganization of the 
platoon is effected, otherwise, at the earliest favorable 
opportunity. A report o£ the situation, strength, and 
mines and ammunition status of the platoon is trans- 
mitted to the company commander. 

170. EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE, a. The use of anti- 
tank mines by a regiment occupying a sector of a battle 
position in defense is discussed in paragraph 75. Ele- 
ments of the antitank mine platoon which deliver die 
mines to front-line battalions are frequently required to 
assist units engaged in laying them. Unless the exact 
sites for mine fteJds are prescribed by front-line battalion 
commanders, or by other commanders from whom the 
platoon may receive its instructions, the antitank mine 
detail leader should ascertain the exact location of 
planned defensive fires of supporting artillery and mor- 



191 



tars, in order to avoid placing mines in these areas. 

b. Mine fields may be laid not only across probable 
avenues of tank approach to the main line of resistance, 
but also in depth, to prevent the free maneuver in the 
regimental sector of tanks which succeed in effecting 
penetration. Wherever practicable, mine fields within the 
defensive position should be so placed in relation to 
natural obstacles as to provide all around protection for 
company or battalion defense areas. The responsibility 
for laying these fields, as well as for those in front of 
the position, may be delegated to one or more battalions. 

171. EMPLOYMENT IN RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS. 

a. Genera'. In retrograde movements, mines are par- 
ticularly valuable in blocking flank approaches, and de- 
laying pursuit. They arc used freely in both day and 
night operations. Mines used to delay pursuit are gen- 
erally left in place. 

b. Night Wifhdrowal. During a night withdrawal, 
mines are extensively employed to block roads which 
intersect the route of withdrawal of the regiment. (See 
par. 88.) Such road blocks are frequently established 
and defended by gun elements of the antitank company 
or battalion antitank platoons, reinforced by rifle units. 
Mine platoon personnel may be attached to such ele- 
ments to assist in laying and removing the mines, and 
to assist in their protection. Precautions to prevent casu- 
alties to friendly troops and vehicles are especially im- 
portant under such conditions. Traffic warning guards 
must be maintained until the last vehicles and troops of 
the covering force have cleared the area, unless the road 
blocks are removed earlier by regimental order. 

c. Da /fight Withdrawal. In a daylight withdrawal, 
all or part of the mine platoon is usually attached to the 
regimental covering force; a part of the platoon may 
be attached to a flank guard, if established by the regi- 



192 




193 



ment. (See par. 89.) After joining the units to which 
they are attached, these elements of the platoon are 
employed as in a delaying action. Any part of the 
platoon not so attached may be used to assist in estab- 
lishing and defending road blocks, as described in a 
above. 

d. Delaying Action. In a delaying action, the entire 
platoon is usually attached, by elements, to front-line 
battalions. (See par. 90.) The wide frontage occupied 
by the regiment, and the limited number of mines 
available, usually restrict the use of mines to the block- 
ing of roads and defiles. Road blocks located to protect 
the flanks of the regiment during withdrawal to rear 
delaying positions, or to slow down direct pursuit by 
the enemy, are frequently installed by the platoon be- 
fore the regiment commences its withdrawal from the 
forward delaying positions. When die supply of mines 
is inadequate to perform all tasks desired, dummy mine 
fields or road blocks may be constructed to deceive the 
enemy. 

172. PROTECTION OF COMMAND POSTS AND AD- 
MINISTRATIVE INSTALLATIONS. Command posts and 
administrative installations, such as the regimental am- 
munition supply point, may be furnished antitank pro- 
tection by the placing of mines across likely avenues of 
tank approach when the number of available mines 
permits such action without depriving the combat ele- 
ments of the regiment of essential mine protection (see 



194 



PART TWO 

ANTITANK PLATOON 
INFANTRY BATTALION 



CHAPTER i 
GENERAL 



SECTION I 
COMPOSITION 

173. GENERAL, a. In strength and composition, the 
battalion antitank platoon is identical with the antitank 
platoon of the antitank company. (See par. 97.) 

b. For armament, equipment and transport, see Table 
of Organization and Equipment. 

174. DUTIES OF PERSONNEL, a. Command Group. 

(1) PLATOON LEADER. 

(a) The platoon leader commands the platoon and 
is responsible, under such, orders as he may receive frorft 
the battalion headquarters company commander, for its 



195 



training and discipline. 

(b) As the battalion antitank officer, his duties, so 
far as applicable, are similar to those of the regimental 
antitank officer, described in paragraph 8b. He assists 
the battalion commander in the planning and execution 
of the battalion antitank defense, and keeps him in- 
formed of any changes, in the situation. He accompanies 
s the battalion commander on reconnaissance, or makes 
a separate reconnaissance, and submits recommendations 
for the employment and coordination of battalion and 
attached antitank weapons. He receives his orders £rom 
the battalion commander, unless his platoon is detached 
from the battalion and placed under the control of 
another commander. 

(2) PLATOON SERGEANT. The duties of the platoon 
sergeant are similar to those of the platoon sergeant in 
the antitank platoon, antitank company (see par. 98) . 
(3} MESSENGER. The messenger transmits oral and 
written messages. He may be directed to act as observer, 
assist in performance of security missions, and operate 
the signal equipment issued to the platoon. He drives 
the vehicle assigned to platoon headquarters, and is 
responsible for driver maintenance. 

b. Squad Personnel. The duties of squad personnel 
are similar to those of the personnel of the antitank 
squad, antitank company {see par. 137 and FM 23-75). 

SECTION II 

SUPPLY, MEDICAL SERVICE AND 
EVACUATION 

175. SUPPLY, a. The battalion commander is respon- 
sible for the initial procurement and replenishment of 
all supplies in combat. The platoon leader is responsible, 



196 



under the battalion commander, for ammunition supply. 
(See par. 183.) He is also responsible for initiating the 
resupply o£ gasoline and oil for platoon vehicles. He 
is assisted in these duties by the platoon sergeant. The 
ammunition and pioneer platoon of the battalion head- 
quarters company may assist ill ammunition supply. (See 
FM 7-30.) 

b. Since the platoon or its elements will frequently 
be at a considerable distance from the mess location of 
the battalion headquarters company, the company com- 
mander must insure, by prior planning and coordination 
with other units, that the men will be fed adequately 
and on time. The battalion commander must insure that 
all company commanders understand their responsibility 
for feeding these men when operating nearby, whether 
attached or not, in the absence of facilities for their 
being fed by their own company. 

176. MEDICAL SERVICE AND EVACUATION. For a 

description of medical service and evacuation, see chap- 
ter 2, part one. 

SECTION III 
TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT 

177. REFERENCE. For a discussion of the operations 
of the infantry battalion in troop movements and bivou- 
acs, in offensive and defensive combat, and in retrograde 
movements, and for directives for the tactical training 
of the battalion antitank platoon, see FM 7-20. 

178. MISSIONS, o. Primary Missions. The primary 
mission of the battalion antitank platoon is to provide 
antimechanized defense to the battalion. To provide all 



197 



around security, its guns must be coordinated with the 
other antimechanized means of the battalion and the 
regiment. Frequently, the antimechanized defense of the 
battalion is supplemented by elements of the regimental 
antitank company. Exceptionally, it is detached for 
special missions. The antitank company commander, as, 
regimental antitank officer, will frequently include the 
employment of the battalion antitank platoon in his 
plan for regimental antimechanized protection, partic- 
ularly in defense. Ordinarily, the platoon will be em- 
ployed within the area of its own battalion. 

b. Secondary Missions. Secondary missions include 
firing on hostile antitank guns and other located crew- 
served weapons, emplacements, pill boxes and other 
point targets. Secondary targets will be many and fre- 
quent when a battalion is employed as a front-line unit 
or on an exposed flank, or is engaged in a special 
operation, such as an attack against a town or fortified 
position. 

179. READINESS FOR ACTION. The guns of the bat- 
talion antitank platoon are kept in a state of readiness 
for action in the same manner as described for the guns 
of the antitank company in paragraph 6e. They are 
held mobile less frequently than are the latter guns. 

130. COORDINATION WITH OTHER ANTITANK 
MEANS. The platoon leader makes timely recommenda- 
tions to the battalion commander for the employment 
of his platoon. His plan must insure that the combina- 
tion of antitank guns, antitank rifle grenades and rockets, 
and mine fields and other obstacles provides the best 
possible antimechanized protection to the battalion. He 
also effects coordination widi the commander of any 
other antitank elements which may be located in the 
immediate vicinity of his firing position area (s) . 



198 



181. SECURITY, a. Warning System. (1) The bat- 
talion antimechanized warning system is included in 
that of the regiment. (See par. 13,) Information of 
hostile mechanized threats received by radio is trans- 
mitted by the battalion commander to the leader of the 
antitank platoon. The laLter must be prepared at all 
times to relay such information promptly to the elements 
of his platoon. When these elements are widely separated, 
he may request that he be provided with additional 
technical means of communication; or, if available 
means within the platoon are inadequate, that elements 
of the platoon receive such warning direct from the 
battalion command post. 

(2) In addition to the above measures, the platoon 
provides its own air-antitank guards. For details, see 
paragraph 13c and d. 

b. Other Security Measures, (1) The platoon and 
squad leaders are responsible for security measures and 
close-in protection against hostile air and ground attack. 
For details, see paragraphs 13-16. 

(?) As battalion antitank officer, the platoon leader is 
responsible that a traffic warning guard is maintained 
over any mines laid by elements of the battalion in the 
battalion area, and that these mines are protected by 
small-arms fire and also, if possible, by antitank guns, 
antitank rifle grenades, and rockets. 

182. COMMUNICATION. With the exception of radios, 
which may not be available, the means of communica- 
tion employed are similar to those in the antitank 
platoon, antitank company ( see par. 99) . While it is 
the responsibility of the battalion commander to main- 
tain contact with the platoon, the platoon leader should 
assist him in this respect by the utilization of all means 
of communication at his disposal. 



199 



183. AMMUNITION SUPPLY, a. The platoon leader is 
responsible, under the battalion plan, that sufficient am- 
munition is available at gun positions, and that ex- 
pended ammunition is promptly replenished. He usually 
delegates supervision of ammunition replenishment to 
the platoon sergeant, who keeps himself informed of 
the status of ammunition within the platoon. 

b. Upon arrival of the platoon, or a squad, at its 
uncoupling position, sufficient ammunition to meet con- 
templated needs is unloaded from the squad prime 
mover and hand carried to the firing position. The 
amount unloaded will depend on the strength of the 
probable mechanized threat, as indicated by the number 
of hostile tanks believed to be within striking distance, 
and the likelihood of firing on emplaced enemy auto- 
matic "weapons, pill boxes, or other secondary targets. 

c. (i) Because of the limited mobility of the anti- 
tank gun when moved by hand, the prime mover should 
normally remain under cover near the gun position. The 
platoon headquarters truck may be used in emergencies 
to replenish the ammunition supply. If replenishment in 
larger quantities becomes necessary, and battalion trans- 
portation is not available, arrangements must be made 
by the battalion commander to secure a vehicle from 
the regimental train. The normal ammunition loads of 
prime movers should be maintained as continuously as 
possible. 

(s) In a rapid forward movement, such as with an 
advance guard, or in pursuit, the system of ammunition 
supply is similar to that in attack. When distances from 
supply points are so great as to make replenishment 
difficult, needs must be anticipated, and additional 
quantities of ammunition and transport secured from 
higher headquarters. 



300 



if. The hand carry of ammunition from the location 
of the prime mover is controlled by squad leaders, under 
the general supervision of the platoon leader and platoon 
sergeant, 

e. In defensive situations, the battalion commander 
will prescribe the amount of ammunition to be unloaded 
in the battalion defense area of the battle position. 
Frequently, after the enemy has established contact, re- 
plenishment of ammunition from the rear is practicable 
under cover of darkness only. Provision must be made, 
however, for the immediate resupply of elements of the 
platoon whose ammunition becomes seriously depleted. 
This is accomplished by keeping a proportion of the 
ammunition at a platoon supply point established near 
the gun positions. Basing his estimates on the record of 
ammunition expenditure maintained by the platoon 
sergeant, the platoon leader plans and effects the dis- 
tribution to the squads of the resupply of ammunition 
brought forward after dark. Ammunition is distributed 
among primary, supplementary, and alternate emplace- 
ments and stored in ammunition shelters dug in the 
sides of the emplacements. Additional ammunition may 
be stored in other nearby shelters. The requirements of 
an ammunition shelter are that the ammunition be kept 
dry, protected, and concealed. 

f. During retrograde movements, replenishment of am- 
munition will be held to the minimum necessary for 
antimechanized defense. Amounts estimated to be suffi- 
cient for the contemplated action are left with each unit. 
Regimental or battalion ammunition carrying vehicles 
may be released to the platoon on rear positions, or 
resupply may be effected by the establishment of ammu- 
nition supply points by higher headquarters, either on 
rear positions or en route thereto. The battalion com- 
mander will inform the platoon leader as to the location 
of such supply points. 



201 



SECTION IV 



MARCHES AND BIVOUACS 



184. MARCHES. The battalion may form a part of the 
main body of the regiment, may be detailed as a security 
force of the regiment or of a larger unit, or may march 
as an individual unit. (See FM 7-30.) 

a. When the battalion forms a part of the main body 
of the regiment, the antitank platoon may be employed 
under regimental control for the protection of the col- 
umn as a whole; its conduct is then similar to that of 
an antitank platoon of the antitank company as de- 
scribed in paragraph 104. When not employed in the 
protection of the column as a whole, the platoon is 
disposed by the battalion commander for the protection 
of the battalion, either by distributing squads through- 
out the column, or directing them to occupy successive 
firing positions along the flanks. 

b. With Advance Guard. (1) When the battalion 
constitutes the advance guard of the regiment, the action 
of the antitank platoon is coordinated with that of any 
attached antitank guns. (Sec par. 104a (2) (a) ,) If called 
upon for recommendations, the platoon leader must 
consider the employment of both his own and the at- 
tached weapons. Antitank squads may be advanced from 
one suitable firing position to another, to afford con- 
tinuous antimechanized protection to the marching col- 
umn. In such movements, antitank units are given 
priority on roads and move rapidly to successive posi- 
tions. The platoon leader or other personnel designated 
by him accompanies the leading foot elements in order 
to select cover and firing positions. Only the amount of 
ammunition required for immediate needs is unloaded 



at the gun position. If such employment of the antitank 
platoon is impracticable, as in a motorized movement, 
the guns are distributed in the support and reserve, 
usually by squads, so as to afford protection throughout 
the advance guard. 

(3) Speed in going into action is essential. When guns 
are in cover or firing positions, members of the crews 
are posted to observe in all directions. Gun crews must 
at all times be on the alert for warning signals from 
air-antitank guards. When contact with the enemy is 
established, the platoon is employed as in offensive, or 
defensive combat, depending upon the action of the 
advance guard. 

c. With Flank Guard. When the battalion constitutes 
a flank guard of the regiment, the employment of the 
antitank platoon is generally the same as with an ad- 
vance guard. When several dangerous tank approaches 
must be passed during the progress of a march, elements 
of the platoon move by bounds from one position to 
another (see fig. 11) . If there is a single avenue of ap- 
proach from a threatened flank, the battalion commander 
may direct the platoon leader to move to a single feature 
which may be utilized as an initial delaying position, 
or defended until the mission is accomplished. 

d. With Rear Guard. See paragraph 104a (a) (c) . 

e. Battalion Marching Alone. When the battalion 
marches alone, it details its own advance, flank, and 
rear guards. A squad of the battalion antitank platoon 
is usually attached to the advance guard. (See FM 
7-20.) A squad of the battalion antitank platoon may 
be attached to a flank or rear guard having a strength 
of not less than a rifle platoon. The remainder of the 
battalion antitank platoon marches in the main body 
of the battalion, prepared to move promptly in any 
direction to meet a hostile mechanized threat. 



203 



f. N/ght Marches. Elements of the platoon are sel- 
dom employed with security elements of the battalion 
during a night march. Ordinarily, the platoon marches 
as a unit in the motor column of the battalion. If the 
battalion is marching alone, the platoon may be em- 
ployed, usually by squads, to protect road blocks estab- 
lished along the flanks of the route of march. Excep- 
tionally, when the battalion marches as part of the 
regiment, the platoon may be employed in a similar 
manner under regimental control. 

g. Motor Movements. In motor movements, the bat- 
talion antitank platoon is usually distributed by squads 
throughout the battalion column, irrespective of whether 
the battalion is moving in the main body, as a security 
element of a larger force, or is moving independently. 
When the route is enclosed by natural tank obstacles 
with but few openings, elements of the platoon may be 
sent forward to cover these openings prior to the advance 
of the main body, and join the rear of the column as 
it passes. Such employment usually occurs only when the 
battalion is moving independently, or as a security 
element. (See par. s<}.) 

185. BIVOUACS, o. Battalion Operating as Part of 
Regiment. (1) The battalion bivouac area is usually 
designated by the regimental commander. The distribu- 
tion of units in the area should be made so as to facilitate 
the succeeding operation. 

(2) (a) A "battalion detailed as a bivouac outpost is 
ordinarily reinforced by the attachment of antitank com- 
pany elements. Its defense may be supplemented by the 
employment of engineers for construction of mine fields 
and other obstacles. 

(b) Antitank elements are disposed to cover tank 
approaches to the outpost position; reserve elements may 
b§ held mobile, prepared to move rapidly to any one 



204 



of several previously recormoitered positions. Each anti- 
tank squad organizes its position as for defense on a 
wide front. An air-antitank guard is constantly on duty 
at each gun position. Gun crews construct emplacements 
and fox holes and prepare camouflage in a manner 
similar to that in the organization of a defense area of 
a battle position. 

b. Bottafion Operating Alone. (1) When the bat- 
talion bivouacs alone, the battalion commander details 
the bivouac outpost. He prescribes the necessary meas- 
ures for antimechanized defense, and for close-in pro- 
tection against attacks by infiltrating enemy groups. 
(2) The antitank platoon is usually attached to the 
bivouac outpost. It may be employed to assist in estab- 
lishing road blocks, or to cover by fire likely approaches 
for hostile armored vehicles. Rocket teams cover ap- 
proaches to the bivouac area not covered by antitank 
guns.- Exceptionally, the lack of sufficient guns to provide 
adequate all around protection may require that the 
platoon be held mobile ready to occupy prepared firing 
positions, 



20s 



CHAPTER 2 
OFFENSIVE COMBAT 



SECTION I 

APPROACH MARCH AND ASSEMBLY 
AREA 

186. DAYLIGHT APPROACH MARCH, o. General. 

(1) For the dispositions and conduct o£ leading and 
rear battalions in a daylight approach march, see FM 
7-20. 

(2) The development order of the battalion commander 
prescribes the locations of the antitank platoon in the 
battalion formation. The rear of the battalion ordinarily 
is protected by regimental antitank guns, and, in the 
case of a leading battalion, by those of battalions in rear. 
For this reason, the antitank platoon is usually directed 
to move between the first and second echelons of the 
battalron with the primary mission of furnishing frontal 
and flank protection to the leading echelon. 

(3) The battalion order may prescribe whether the 
platoon is to move as a unit, or is to be distributed by 
squads under platoon control; however, this decision 
may be left to the judgment of the platoon leader. 
When the battalion is advancing on a narrow front, or 



206 



when only one Hank is exposed to mecnamzcu auacn., 
the platoon usually marches as a unit. Distribution by 
squads is ordinarily essential when an extensive front 
must be covered, or when tank attacks against both 
flanks of the battalion are posiblc. When the nature of 
the terrain is such, or the frontage of a leading bat- 
talion is so extensive, that the fires of the battalion anti- 
tank platoon are insufficient to furnish adequate anti- 
mechanized protection, a platoon or lesser element of 
the antitank company may be attached to the battalion. 

b. Platoon Marching as Unit, (i) When the anti- 
tank platoon marches as a unit, the platoon leader 
may dispose it in line of squads, in column, with squads 
echeloned, or in a triangular formation. For a discussion 
of these formations, see paragraph io6e(2). 
(a) The platoon leader, accompanied by the messenger, 
usually moves with the leading echelon of the battalion, 
the platoon sergeant remaining with the platoon. The 
platoon leader conducts constant reconnaissance as de- 
scribed in paragraph 106. When heavily shelled areas 
cannot be avoided, the platoon leader may direct that 
squads cross the area individually; the unit, under the 
supervision of the platoon sergeant, reforms on a desig- 
nated terrain feature on the opposite side. The platoon 
may be directed to cross any dangerous area, such as a 
road or ridge exposed to hostile observation, in a single 
rush with vehicles abreast and as widely separated as 
is practicable. When the terrain affords long fields of 
fire and wide observation to the front and flanks, the 
platoon of a leading battalion moves by bounds to 
successive terrain features. Depending upon the need 
for maintaining protection at the initial position, dis- 
placement may be made by squad echelon— two squads 
displacing, with one squad in place, or vice versa— or 
the platoon may displace as a unit. The platoon leader 
selects forward firing position areas prior to the arrival 



207 



of the leading squad (s) . If a platoon from the regimental 
antitank company is attached to the battalion, the 
platoons may advance by bounds, leapfrogging each 
other. 

c. Squads Marching Separately. (1) Each squad 
may be given the mission of providing antitank protec- 
tion in a zone covering approximately one-third of the 
battalion zone of advance. If the battalion moves with 
two rifle companies abreast in its leading echelon, one 
squad may be assigned the mission of protecting each 
of the leading rifle companies. The remaining squad 
may be employed to supplement the antitank defense of 
the more vulnerable of the leading rifle companies, or 
held mobile in a central location prepared to move to 
the assistance of either company as the situation re- 
quires. If necessary, an additional gun (s) of the anti- 
tank company may be attached (see also a (3) above) . 

(2) The squad leader precedes his squad by a sufficient 
distance to perform reconnaissance similar to that of 
the platoon leader (see b (2) above) . He selects tenta- 
tive firing positions, unless these are designated by the 
platoon leader. 

{3) When squads march separately, the platoon leader 
utilizes the members of his command group to assist in 
maintaining control. Necessary instructions for changes 
in the dispositions or conduct of the squads are trans- 
mitted by signals or messengers, 

<f. Employment of Prime Movers. Prime movers arc 
employed to tow the gun and to carry the crew, ammu- 
nition, and accessories whenever the situation permits. 
At halts, each gun is placed in a cover position (un- 
coupled, when necessary) located near a tentative firing 
position. Squads must be in a state of readiness for 
action or resumption of movement at all times. 



208 



187. NIGHT APPROACH MARCH. For a night ap 
proach march, the battalion is generally divided into 
a foot echelon and a motor echelon. All vehicles in the 
battalion, except those required for command and 
security purposes, form the motor echelon, which is held 
in a concealed bivouac in the rear, and moves forward 
in time to reach the new assembly area shortly after 
the arrival of the foot elements. The antitank platoon 
usually moves with the motor echelon. It may move as 
a unit or be distributed in the motor column by squads. 
The platoon, or elements thereof, may form part of a 
motorized detachment sent ahead to block possible 
avenues of tank approach which threaten the foot 
echelon of the battalion. It may also form part of a 
motorized detachment sent ahead to .block possible 
talion assembly area or other march objective. (Sec- 
par . 107.) 

188. ASSEMBLY AREA. a. At times, the regiment may 
enter the attack directly from the approach march. 
Whenever practicable, however, it interrupts its ap- 
proach march to occupy assembly area (s) , preliminary 
to deployment for attack, under protection of a covering 
force established by higher headquarters or of a regi- 
mental outpost. If the battalion has been the advance 
guard, or the leading battalion of the main body during 
the approach march, it ordinarily establishes the regi- 
mental outpost. For employment of the battalion anti- 
tank platoon, see paragraph 108. 

b. When the battalion occupies an assembly area 
which is protected by an outpost established by higher 
authority, the antitank platoon leader will usually be 
directed to occupy one or more firing position areas and 
provide local antimechanized protection for the bat- 
talion. These orders will ordinarily be received in time 
for the platoon to move directly from the approach 



309 



march to its firing position area (s) without halting. The 
designated firing position area (s) will frequently have 
been selected from a map only; the prompt selection 
and occupation of firing positions on the ground is the 
responsibility of the platoon leader. 

SECTION II 
EMPLOYMENT IN ATTACK 

189. GENERAL, er. The battalion antitank platoon is 
employed primarily for the antimechanized protection 
o£ the front and flanks of the attacking echelon of the 
battalion. For deeper protection on the flanks, and to 
the rear, the battalion is frequently reinforced by a pla- 
toon of the antitank company. (See par. 48b.) At times, 
the platoon may also be employed on secondary missions 
oE firing on point targets. (See par. 178b.) 

b. The battalion commander will ordinarily designate 
an initial firing position area for the platoon or for each 
squad, trnm which it will protect the attacking echelon 
against armored attacks from specified directions or 
avenues of approach. The order will usually designate 
the location of at least the next firing position area (s) , 
and the time at which the displacement is to be effected- 
The time is usually fixed by prescribing that displace- 
ment be made immediately upon capture by the attack- 
ing echelon of certain specified terrain features. The 
mission (s) to be accomplished in the new location are 
included. (See FM 7-20.) 

c. When it is impossible to designate in advance the 
location of subsequent positions, the battalion com- 
mander may direct the platoon to continue its mission 
o£ protecting the attacking echelon, and leave the details 



210 



of execution to the platoon leader. As the attack pro- 
gresses, the latter designates a Hew firing position area (s) , 
and orders such changes in die employment of the pla- 
toon as changes in the situation and the terrain require. 

d. Exceptionally, the battalion commander may at- 
tach the platoon or elements thereof to attacking rifle 
companies, or direct that the platoon or its elements 
follow and protect these companies. In such cases, the 
responsibility of the squad leader include those de- 
scribed in c above, so far as they pertain to a squad. 

190. RECONNAISSANCE PRIOR TO ATTACK, a. 

When time permits, the platoon leader may be directed 
to accompany the battalion commander while the latter 
makes his reconnaissance, or he may be required to make 
a separate reconnaissance and submit recommendations 
to the battalion commander, prior to the issuance of the 
battalion attack order. Such recommendations include 
initial missions of the platoon, 

b. Prior to leaving on reconnaissance, or when sum- 
moned to receive the battalion attack order, the platoon 
leader informs the platoon sergeant of his planned route 
and destination. The platoon leader is usually accom- 
panied by "the messenger. When a platoon of the regi- 
mental antitank company is attached, the platoon leaders 
should, if practicable, make their reconnaissance to- 
gether. 

c. During his reconnaissance preparatory to submit- 
ting recommendations to the battalion commander, the 
platoon leader seeks information concerning — 

(1) Likely avenues of approach for hostile mechanized 
units. 

(2) Location of enemy mine fields. 

(3) Natural or artificial tank obstacles. 

(4) General dispositions of friendly troops already in 
position in the battalion zone of action, the line (or 



311 



areas) of departure, units of the attacking echelon, and 
boundaries of the battalion zone of action, 

(5) Cover positions for the squads. 

(6) Primary and alternate firing positions (see par. 6) 
for the squads which will enable the platoon to cover 
the most likely avenues of hostile mechanized attack 
against the front and flanks of the attacking echelon of 
the battalion. 

(7) Supplementary and alternate firing positions. When 
time is pressing, the selection of these positions may have 
to be deferred until after the platoon attack order has 
been issued and squads have occupied their firing posi- 
tion areas. 

(8) A platoon observation post providing observation 
over the front and Hanks of the battalion, and from 
which the platoon leader can observe^ll elements of the 
platoon or, if this is impracticable, one from which he 
can observe the most probable area for hostile tank 
attack. 

{9) Uncoupling positions as far forward as concealment 
and defilade for the prime movers permit, and concealed 
or covered routes therefrom to firing or cover positions. 
(10) Covered routes for forward displacement from the 
initial firing position area (s) . 

d. Frequently time will not permit reconnaissance by 
the platoon leader prior to receipt of the battalion com- 
mander's attack order. In such a case, the scope of the 
reconnaissance is similar to that described in c above, 
except that the platoon leader must select firing positions 
and sectors of responsibility for each squad which will 
permit fires to be executed in the principal direction (s) 
of fire assigned to the platoon in the battalion com- 
mander's order. 

19T. ORDER OF PLATOON LEADER, a. When prac 
ti cable, the platoon leader issues his orders to squad 



212 



leaders at a point from which they can see the terrain 
over which they are to advance. Ground which is favor- 
able for tank action, as well as existing tank obstacles, 
should be pointed out. 

fa. The platoon leader may direct that squads occupy 
temporary firing positions, and that the leaders report 
to him at the point where the order is to be issued, as 
soon as the guns are in their temporary positions. If 
time permits, he may direct that squad leaders go for- 
ward to receive the order while the squads are in the 
assembly area. In such a case, squad leaders, after re- 
ceiving the order, return, or send a messenger, to guide 
the squads into their firing or cover positions. 

c. The platoon leader's order covers — 
(i) Necessary information of the enemy and friendly 
troops, to include — 

(a) Types of enemy tanks operating in the vicinity. 

(b) Locations of known or suspected enemy mine 
fields or mined road blocks; information as to passages 
and warning signs. 

(c) Proposed movement and plan of action of friend- 
ly tanks operating in the vicinity, together with their 
identifying marks and signals. 

(d) Challenge signal (if prescribed) to be used in 
requiring that tanks believed to be friendly identify 
themselves. 

(<?) Location of nearby antitank guns of other units, 
and of known mine fields and antitank obstacles. 

(/) The following details of the battalion plan of 
action, so far as they affect the action of the squads: 

J. Initial location, scheme of maneuver, and ob- 
jective of rifle companies. 
3. Location of battalion supporting weapons; pre- 
arranged fires of heavy weapons units and 
supporting artillery. 



213 



5- Location and mission (sf ol supporting or at- 
tached elements of the antitank company, 
(a) Mission (s) of the platoon. 
(3) Instructions for each squad, to include — 

(a) Location of cover, primary, and alternate posi- 
tions, principal direction of fire, and sector of respon- 
sibility. 

(fr) Conditions governing opening of fire (see par. 
102c) . 

(c) Locations of supplementary and alternate posi- 
tions, and conditions under which they are to be oc- 
cupied. 

(<i) Employment of rocket teams. 

(e) Construction of emplacements; concealment and 
camouflage. 

(f) Instructions which can be given at this time con- 
cerning displacement to more advanced firing position 
areas. 

(g) Establishment of liaison with nearby units. 

{4) Location of battalion ammunition supply points; 
location of battalion aid station. 

(5) Location of platoon leader; location of battalion 
and platoon command posts and observation posts; any 
Warning signals, or otber pertinent details of the warn- 
ing service, not covered in standing operating procedure; 
pertinent extracts from signal operation procedure, such 
as call names, prearranged message code, map coordinate 
code, and pyrotechnic signals. 

192. OCCUPATION OF INITIAL FIRING POSITION 
AREA. a. General. The movement from the filing 
position area occupied to protect a battalion assembly 
area, to that occupied during the initial phase of the 
attack, must be so conducted as to provide uninterrupted 
protection to the attacking echelon of the battalion dur- 
ing its movement to its attack positions. This may re- 
quire that the movement be conducted by bounds. If 
time permits, the platoon leader returns and leads the 



314 



platoon forward. Otherwise, it is moved forward either 
by means of prearranged signals or by a guide sent back 
by the platoon leader. In effecting this change of firing 
position areas, guns are moved by prime movers as close 
to cover or firing positions as the terrain and hostile fires 
permit. They are then uncoupled and the movement 
completed by hand. 

fa. Occupation of Primary Firing Positions. Upon 
arrival at the designated primary firing positions, each 
squad leader posts an air-antitank guard and initiates 
the construction of emplacements. The procedure is 
similar to that described for the antitank company pla- 
toon (see par. tub). 

193. ACTION AGAINST HOSTILE MECHANIZED 
ATTACK, a. For action of the platoon against hostile 
mechanized attack, see paragraphs 10a and 112. 

fa. For action of squads, see paragraph 145. 

194. RECONNAISSANCE DURING ATTACK, a. Re 

connaissance for new firing and cover positions, and 
covered routes thereto, is continuous throughout the at- 
tack. The platoon leader initiates this reconnaissance at 
the earliest practicable moment. An enemy who is on 
the defensive and possesses armored vehicles will or- 
dinarily employ them in counterattacks to restore his 
position. Such counterattacks are most likely to occur 
immediately after the attacking echelon has captured a 
terrain objective masking the fife of antitank guns which 
have not displaced to that objective. If the battalion 
antitank platoon is to perform its mission of providing 
protection to the attaching echelon during this critical 
period, it must occupy new firing position areas on the 
objective at the earliest possible moment after the latter 
has been captured. Rapid movement to the objective 
will be possible only when routes have been recon- 
noitered in advance, and either marked or described to 
squad leaders in sufficient detail for ready identification. 



21s 



Similarly, after the guns have reached the vicinity of the 
objective, rapid occupation of firing positions ordinarily 
is possible only when at least the approximate locations 
of suitable firing positions have been determined in 
advance. 

b. Before leaving a firing position area on reconnais- 
sance, the platoon leader issues fragmentary orders con- 
cerning displacement to his platoon sergeant and squad 
leaders. These 1 orders are similar to those issued by the 
leader of an antitank platoon of the antitank company 
on a similar mission. (See par. 1 1 3a and b.) 

c. The conduct of reconnaissance during the attack 
is similar to that of the platoon leader of the antitank 
platoon of the antitank company. (See par. 113c) When 
an antitank platoon of the antitank company is support- 
ing or attached to the battalion, this reconnaissance 
should, if practicable, be coordinated with the leader 
of that platoon. 

195. PROTECTING REORGANIZATION OF BAT- 
TALION. When the battalion halts for reorganization 
following a successful assault, or at any other time during 
the attack, the platoon leader disposes his guns so as 
best to protect the front and flanks of the attacking 
echelon of the battalion. He directs any necessary re- 
organization of the platoon, and arranges for replenish- 
ment of ammunition. 

196. REORGANIZATION OF ANTITANK PLATOON. 

Whenever a leader or other key man becomes a casualty, 
he is promptly replaced. During a fire fight, guns whose 
crews have been seriously depicted by casualties are kept 
in action by temporary readjustment of duties among 
the other members of the platoon. Complete reorganiza- 
tion usually is postponed until the final objective has 
been reached. The platoon leader then equalizes strength 



216 



by reallocation of men among the squads. If squads are 
seriously depleted, he requests the battalion commander 
or nearest company commander to detail riflemen as re- 
placements. During reorganization, platoon and squad 
leaders insure that their units are in a State of. continual 
readiness for immediate action. 

197. PURSUIT. During pursuit of an enemy, the anti- 
tank platoon is usually sent forward in close support of 
the leading elements of the battalion. The platoon ad- 
vances by bounds to cover likely avenues of approach 
for hostile armored vehicles. (See par. 117.) 

198. EMPLOYMENT AT NIGHT, a. If an attack is in- 
terrupted by darkness, the platoon leader promptly dis- 
poses the platoon to cover the most favorable routes of 
approach for armored vehicles leading into the battalion 
position, and contacts the battalion commander for fur- 
ther instructions. 

b. For conduct of a night movement preparatory to 
a daylight attack by the battalion, and employment in 
a night attack, see paragraph 118. 

SECTION in 
SPECIAL OPERATIONS 

199. ATTACK IN WOODS, a. For the general prin- 
ciples governing the employment and conduct of an 
infantry battalion during an attack in woods, see FM 
7—20. 

b. The attack against the near edge of a woods is 
frequently made under cover of smoke or darkness; the 
battalion antitank platoon is then employed in a manner 



217 



similar to that during a night attack. When the attack is 
made in daylight, the platoon protects the front and 
Hanks of the attacking echelon of the battalion as in 
any other attack over open terrain. 

c. During the advance through the woods, the em- 
ployment oE the antitank platoon depends primarily on 
the density of the woods. In fairly open woods, one 
squad is usually directed to follow closely each flank of 
the attacking echelon, and provide protection against 
attacks from the front and flanks. When a platoon of 
the antitank company is attacked, flank guns may be 
reinforced with guns from this platoon. Where the woods 
are so dense that hostile tank attack is practicable only 
through such avenues of approach as roads or small 
clearings, guns are advanced by bounds to cover these 
approaches. If guns must be moved by hand, the attach- 
ment of additional personnel will be necessary. 

d. The battalion is rapidly reorganized before reach- 
ing the far edge of the woods. It then continues its at- 
tack in a manner similar to that for an attack over other 
open terrain. During the reorganization and the initial 
phase of the subsequent attack, the firing positions of 
the guns should be located as far within the edge of the 
woods as is practicable, since the edge is a favorable 
target for hostile artillery. Firing lanes may be. hastily 
prepared if time permits. All guns should be displaced 
to new positions outside the woods as soon as practicable. 

e. For further details, see paragraph 6a. 

200. ATTACK OF TOWNS. For a discussion of the at- 
tack of a battalion within a town, see FM 7-20. For em- 
ployment of antitank weapons in the attack of towns, 
see paragraph fig. 

201. ATTACK OP RIVER LINE. a. A battalion which 
is to force a crossing of a river defended by the enemy 



218 



usually makes its preparations in an initial assembly area 
loeated far enough from the river to be out o[ range of 
the hostile light artillery. It moves from this assembly 
area to a final assembly area near the river under cover 
of darkness. The actual crossing may be made at night, 
at dawn, or in full daylight. In the latter case, the cross- 
ing is usually made under the cover of smoke or fog. 
(See FM 7-20.) 

b. When an attack by hostile armored forces on (he 
near side of the river is possible, protection is usually 
provided by antitank units under the control of higher 
headquarters. 

C. (1) While leading rifle units are assembling- on 
the hostile shore and initiating their advance from the 
river, the antitank guns of a leading battalion are placed 
initially in firing positions on the near bank in order to 
provide antitank protection for the rifle units across the 
river. Such employment of the guns is ordered by the 
battalion commander whenever the river is narrow; 
when the leading rifle units are to cross just before dawn 
or during daylight, and when suitable firing positions 
are available. If the river line is strongly held by the 
enemy, these antitank guns may also be used to destroy 
hostile automatic weapons by direct fire. They open 
fire only when the crossing has been discovered, 
(a) When not initially employed as described in (1) 
above, the platoon is held under cover near the river 
until crossing time. 

(3) When antitank company guns are attached to a 
leading battalion, the battalion antitank platoon may 
be employed as a unit to provide protection on one part 
of the front and on one flank of the battalion, while 
the antitank company guns provide protection on the 
remainder of the front and on the other flank. 

el. In order to afford subordinate leaders the maxi- 
mum time for reconnaissance (preferably by daylight) 



219 



and planning, the battalion commander issues warning 
orders as soon as practicable. The attack order is usually 
issued in fragmentary form, and covers the movement 
from rear assembly areas on the near side, to the initial 
battalion objective on the far side of the river. The order 
should be specific, and as detailed as practicable. Orders 
for the antitank platoon should prescribe the platoon 
firing position area (or its final assembly area near the 
river, if the guns are to be held initially under cover) ; 
disposition of its motor transport, its missions prior to, 
and after crossing the river; the points on the near bank 
at which it will embark for the crossing; its landing 
points on the far bank; and the route and other details 
for the movement from the initial assembly area to its 
firing position area (or final assembly area) . In the 
interest of secrecy, restrictions on reconnaissance arc 
frequently imposed. At the initial objective, the bat- 
talion commander must usually issue additional orders 
for the continuation of the attack. 

c. The platoon leader (accompanied by his squad 
leaders and such other key personnel as the battalion 
commander's instructions will permit) makes a thorough 
reconnaissance, marks the route from the point where 
the platoon will leave the battalion column, and marks 
all positions to be occupied. Before the platoon leaves 
the initial assembly area, the platoon leader issues orders 
which cover in detail the conduct of all subordinate ele- 
ments, to include their initial firing positions and mis- 
sions after reaching tire far bank of the river. For con- 
tents of these orders, so far as applicable, see paragraph 
64. 

f. If the enemy possesses armored vehicles, antimech- 
anized protection may become necessary at any time after 
the battalion reaches the far bank of the river. The 
platoon must therefore be moved across at the earliest 
practicable moment after the leading units have seized 



320 



and cleared the £ar bank. Engineer means, such as ponton 
rafts, may be made available sufficiently early to permit 
timely crossing by the platoon. Frequently, however, it 
will be necessary for the platoon to improvise means for 
ferrying its guns and vehicles, if it is to cross in time to 
perform its mission. The advance by the attacking eche- 
lon from the first objective must be well protected by 
antitank weapons. For a description of improvised means 
of effecting a river crossing, see appendix II. 

202. ATTACK OP FORTIFIED POSITION. For a dis- 
cussion of the employment of antitank units in the at- 
tack of a fortified position, see paragraph 65 and FM 
7-20. 

203, RAIDS. O. (1) Raids are classified as supported 
and unsupported. Supported raids may be made in day- 
light or darkness. They depend for protection on sur- 
prise and the fires of supporting weapons. Unsupported 
raids are conducted without the fires of supporting 
weapons, and depend primarily on surprise, and on 
darkness, fog, or smoke, for protection. {See FM 7-20.) 
{2) The battalion as a unit engages only in supported 
raids. Each plan must be devised to fit. the existing ter- 
rain and situation. A simple plan, thoroughly under- 
stood by all the raiding troops, and thorough reconnais- 
sance are essential. Subordinate commanders should 
make at least one night reconnaissance in addition to 
that made in daylight. 

b. The battalion antitank platoon may be employed 
in support of raids, both to provide all around anti- 
mechanized protection to the raiding . force, and to 
neutralize located point targets by direct fire. When 
the limitations of effective range prevent these missions 
from being accomplished from firing positions within the 
friendly front lines, it may be necessary to occupy posi- 

«i 



tions in advance of the lines. Such positions should be 
within supporting distance of friendly troops. Displace- 
ment of guns and ammunition by hand may be neces- 
sary; when this is the case, the platoon leader should 
request the attachment of additional personnel to assist 
in such displacement. The attachment of riflemen for 
close-in protection will also often be required. During 
the withdrawal of the raiding force, the platoon usually 
operates as in a delaying action. (See par, 319.) 

204. BEACHHEADS, a. In the establishment of a beach- 
head, prompt measures are taken to provide a strong 
and vigorous antimechanized defense. Mines are issued 
to the battalion antitank platoon prior to landing. Addi- 
tional personnel may be attached to assist in movement 
of the guns by hand. 

b. As in the attack of a river line, antitank gains 
should by landed as soon as the beach has been secured 
by the leading elements of the battalion. 

c. Reconnaissance is immediately undertaken for 
likely avenues of hostile tank approach and for suitable 
firing positions for antitank guns and rocket teams. Anti- 
tank guns and rocket launchers may also be employed 
against point targets which are holding up the advance 
of foot troops. 

cf. Close coordination must be established promptly 
between antitank elements and the units which they 
support. 

205. DESERT OPERATIONS. For a discussion of the 
employment of antitank units in desert operations, see 
paragraph 67. 

206. MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS. For a discussion of 
the employment of antitank units in mountain warfare, 
see paragraph 69. 



232 



CHAPTER 3 
DEFENSIVE COMBAT 



SECTION I 
EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE 



207. GENERAL, e. Primary Mission. The primary 
mission of the antitank platoon of a front-line battalion 
is the antitank defense of the main line of resistance. 
(See FM 7-20.) The guns of the platoon are emplaced 
to cover, in conjunction with mines and other obstacles, 
the most likely avenues of hostile mechanized approach, 
a-nd to fire effectively on each hostile tank before it can 
reach the main line of resistance. Positions which permit 
flanking fire on approaching tanks are most desirable. 
Positions near the first terrain feature in the rear of the 
main line of resistance should be selected, provided they 
permit the desired fire in front of the main line of re- 
sistance. Guns are emplaced within the forward platoon 
defense areas if fire support of the main line of resistance 
can be delivered only from such positions. The guns are 
emplaced so as to be mutually supporting. Thus, when 
a hostile tank attempts to overrun one gun position, it 
will be engaged in flank by another gun. (See fig. is.) 
The guns of the regimental antitank company add depth 



223 



to the antitank defense o£ die battalion, and protection 
to the flanks and rear (see par. 72) . 

b. Support of General Outpost. When a battalion 
is assigned to the general outpost, the antitank platoon 
will be assigned the mission of covering roads or other 
likely avenues of approach for armored vehicles. (See 
FM 7-20.) If the outpost order prescribes that the area 
will be held for a specified time, or until other further 
orders, the platoon occupies and organizes its firing posi- 
tion in a manner similar to that described in paragraph 
127 for a platoon of the antitank company. Prime movers 
are held close to the gun positions. 

c. Support of Combat Oufposf. The platoon or ele- 
ments thereof may be attached to the combat outpost 
of a defensive position. Employment is similar to that 
in the support of a general outpost. Upon withdrawal, 
the combat outpost 'usually withdraws directly to the 
battle position without occupying an intermediate posi- 
tion. The antitank guns withdraw directly to previously 
selected positions in the battalion defense area, 

d. Employment of Antitank Pfafoon of Reserve 
Battalion. The antitank platoon of a battalion in regi- 
mental reserve may be assigned missions by the regi- 
mental commander. When the platoon remains under 
battalion control, its primary mission is the all around 
protection of the battalion assembly area. (See FM 
7—20.) When the reserve battalion occupies a defensive 
position, its antitank platoon is disposed to limit the 
penetration of tanks beyond forward positions, protect 
the flanks and rear of the battalion, and, if fields of fire 
permit, supplement the fires of leading battalion anti- 
tank guns in protection of the main line of resistance. 

208. RECONNAISSANCE AND FIRE PLAN. a. The 

antitank platoon leader receives his orders directly from 
the battalion commander, and is usually included in 



424 



the lattcr's reconnaissance party. He may be assigned 
independent antitank reconnaissance missions. He may 
be directed to report on natural obstacles in front of the 
position, and likely avenues of hostile mechanized ap- 
proach, and to submit recommendations for the method 
of employment of the platoon, locations for mines and 
other obstacles, and any additional support required 
from the regimental antitank company. 

b. The platoon leader formulates his fire plan and 
submits it to the battalion commander for approval, 
usually in the form of an overlay or sketch. Such an 
overlay or sketch should show the location of all nearby 
mine fields and other antitank obstacles, the sedor of 
responsibility, principal direction of fire, and primary, 
supplementary, and alternate positions of each gun, and 
the primary and supplementary positions and principal 
directions of fire of nearby antitank guns and rocket 
teams of other units. It should also indicate the condi- 
tions established for the opening of fire, including desig- 
nation of guns which are to engage hostile reconnais- 
sance or decoy vehicles. The plan is revised and modified 
as necessary by the battalion commander. (See FM 7-20.) 

209, RECONNAISSANCE PRIOR TO OCCUPATION 
OF POSITION, a. Upon receipt of the battalion order, 
the platoon leader makes such additional reconnaissance 
as is necessary to select cover positions and primary and 
alternate firing positions for each squad. He also selects 
supplementary and alternate firing positions, observa- 
tion posts from which to observe the more important 
avenues of hostile tank approach, and covered routes of 
approach for the movement of the platoon into position. 
Supplementary positions should be near enough to pri- 
mary firing positions for the guns to be moved thereto 
by hand. 



325 



fa. If the defensive position is to be occupied during 
darkness, the selected positions and routes thereto should, 
be reconnoitered and marked during daylight. If pos- 
sible, the platoon leader issues his orders in time for 
squad leaders to make their reconnaissance; otherwise, 
he designates guides, and insures that they familiarize 
themselves with the routes and the selected positions. 

C. When a platoon of the antitank company has been 
assigned a firing position area within the defense area 
of the battalion, the leader of the battalion antitank 
platoon furnishes him with any necessary data, and as- 
sists him in effecting necessary coordination. (>See par. 
134b.) 

210. ORDERS. See paragraph 126, except that the or- 
ders of the platoon leader of the battalion antitank 
platoon cover the locations of the battalion ammunition 
supply point, the battalion aid station, and the battalion 
command post, rather than those of the corresponding 
installations used by the platoons of the antitank com- 
pany. 

211. OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATION OF FIR- 
ING POSITIONS. Occupation and organization of firing 
positions are conducted as described for the antitank 
platoon, antitank company (see par. 1 27) . 

212. CONDUCT OF DEFENSE. During combat, the 
platoon leader takes position where he can best observe 
and control the action of his platoon. This position 
should permit of easy communication with the battalion 
commander. Tf the width, of the platoon sector of re- 
sponsibility is great, he may assign a portion to the 
platoon sergeant for supervision and control. For further 
details, see paragraph 128b. 



126 



273. ANTIAIRCRAFT SECURITY. For antiaircraft se- 
curity, see paragraph 53. 

214. LOCAL SECURITY. For local security, see para- 
graphs ig and 16. 

215. AMMUNITION SUPPLY. For ammunition supply, 
see paragraph 183. 

216. SPECIAL OPERATIONS. For discussion of the em- 
ployment of the battalion antitank platoon in defense 
in woods, of towns, of a river line, against airborne 
operations, in desert operations, and in mountain opera- 
tions, see paragraphs 91-96. 

SECTION II 
RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS- 

217. NIGHT WITHDRAWAL, a. For the conduct of a 
night withdrawal by the battalion, see FM 7-20. The 
battalion commander may direct that one or more guns 
be left in position with the battalion covering force to 
cover avenues of approach suitable for use by mechan- 
ized forces at night. The platoon, less such guns as may 
be left with the covering force, is withdrawn with the 
battalion. Daylight reconnaissance of routes of with- 
drawal is initiated by the platoon leader. The platoon 
sergeant, assisted by other available personnel, may be 
used for such reconnaissance. The platoon leader usual- 
ly remains with the platoon. 

fa. The forward limit of transportation is prescribed 
by the battalion commander. For a front-line battalion, 
this is usually not farther forward than the first terrain 



227 



feature in rear ot the main line of resistance. Prime 
movers arc ordered forward to positions as near the 
guns as this limit will permit. 

c. The withdrawal is made quietly and without lights. 
Guns are moved by hand from the emplacements to the 
location of the prime movers. For the withdrawal from 
the coupling position to the battalion assembly area, 
elements of the platoon will usually be attached to the 
rifle companies in whose areas the guns are emplaced. 
Guides are posted to meet the squads as they withdraw 
and lead them to the prime movers. Guns may be dis- 
patched and guided individually from the coupling posi- 
tion to the battalion assembly area, where, upon arrival, 
they are guided to the platoon assembly area. When all 
elements of the platoon have arrived in the assembly 
area, the platoon is reformed and prepared to move to 
the rear. Further action is conducted as for a night route 
march {see par. 1841) 

d. Elements remaining with the battalion covering 
force withdraw under the control of the covering force 
commander, and rejoin the platoon as directed. 

218. DAYLIGHT WITHDRAWAL, o. In the daylight 
withdrawal of a front-line battalion (see I'M 7-20) , the 
antitank platoon is used to protect it against pursuit by 
hostile tanks. Guns emplaced in the areas of front-line 
rifle units are attached to such units during the initial 
phase of the withdrawal. Upon reaching the location of 
the battalion reserve, these guns may be attached to the 
battalion covering force (battalion reserve) and operate 
directly under the commander of that unit, or they may 
be given a mission order to protect an exposed flank of 
the battalion. The platoon leader promptly dispatches 
available personnel, usually headed by the platoon ser- 
geant, to reconnoitcr and select firing positions from 
which to carry out the assigned mission and guide ele- 



11 e 



me i us of the platoon to these positions. If the platoon 
is attached to the battalion covering force, the recon- 
naissance personnel contact the commander of that force 
for instructions prior to leaving on reconnaissance. The 
platoon leader regains control of elements attached to 
rifle companies as soon as they are released from such 
attachment. Vehicles are sent forward as far as prac- 
ticable to permit prompt displacement of the guns. The 
battalion covering force withdraws under the protection 
of the regimental covering force. The antitank platoon 
is employed during further movement to the rear as in 
a route march (see par. i8.je) . 

b. A reserve battalion usually acts as the covering force 
o[ a regiment or larger unit. It occupies a position from 
which it can stop, delay, or divert the advance of the 
enemy in order to permit the front-line battalions to dis- 
engage themselves, move to the rear, and assemble. Anti- 
tank guns must be prepared to move laterally to threat- 
ened areas. When the battalion withdraws, it executes 
a delaying action or acts as a rear guard; the conduct 
of the antitank platoon is as described for a delaying 
action (see par, 319a) . 

219. DELAYING ACTION, a. On One Position. The 

antimechanized protection of a battalion which is con- 
ducting a delaying action on one position is not mate- 
rially different from that of a battalion occupying an 
organized position in sustained defense, except that the 
battalion may be extended over a frontage much greater 
than that ordinarily occupied. (See FM 7-20.) 

b. On Successive Positions. (1) Upon arrival at the 
first delaying position, the platoon leader, in company 
with the battalion commander, or independently, as the 
latter may direct, reconnoiters for the disposition of his 
platoon, the loca'ion of mine fields, and the construction 
or improvement of other antitank obstacles. Upon com- 



M9 



pletion of the reconnaissance, he submits his recom- 
mendations. In general, the dispositions recommended 
for the guns of the platoon will be similar to those for 
defense of an organized position (see pars. 209-213), 
except that firing positions should, if possible, be located 
near a topographic crest, -with prime movers near the 
gun positions, and concealed behind the crest, in order 
to facilitate withdrawal. Firing is opened at long range 
at the earliest moment that promises effect against the 
type of hostile armored vehicle employed. 

{2) Early reconnaissance of delaying positions in rear of 
the first position, and routes of withdrawal, must be 
initiated by the platoon leader. The platoon sergeant, 
accompanied by other available personnel, may be em- 
ployed for this reconnaissance. Prompt reconnaissance 
and selection of supplementary positions to cover the 
flanks, and of covered routes, thereto is essential. 

(3) Vehicles are held as close to firing positions as is 
practicable. Ammunition is kept on vehicles; only a suf- 
ficient amount to meet estimated immediate needs is 
placed at gxin positions. Fire is opened at maximum 
effective ranges. Withdrawals to rear positions are usual- 
ly made by leapfrogging squads, so that part of the pla- 
toon is constantly ready to engage hostile armored ele- 
ments. 



230 



APPENDIX I 

INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION AND 
EMPLACEMENTS FOR ANTITANK 
WEAPONS 



1. GENERAL. It must become a habit of all soldiers to 
seek individual protection when halted. When the halt 
is expected to be brief, troops take advantage of natural 
protection afforded by the terrain, such as ditches or 
holes in the ground. Whenever the situation becomes 
stabilized temporarily, they dig intrenchments for their 
individual protection and emplacements for the protec- 
tion of their weapons. Intrenchments and weapon em- 
placements are located so as to cover a selected area with 
fire and, at the same time, provide maximum conceal- 
ment and protection from air 'and ground observation 
and fire. In order to confuse the enemy, judicious use 
must be made of decoys or dummy positions. 

2. CONSTRUCTION, a. Full advantage should be taken 
of all existing natural features. Many terrain features 
may be used in their natural state to provide conceal- 
ment and protection from fire; frequently, a little labor 
can convert them into strong defensive positions. 

b. Intrenchments and emplacements are usually laid 
out and constructed by the troops who are to utilize 
them. 

c. As far as practicable, tasks are undertaken concur- 
rently, so that the position will have progressive over-all 
defensive strength during its development. 



231 



3. FOX HOLES, a. Use. The fox hole is the in trench- 
men t normally dug for individual protection when con- 
tact -with the enemy is imminent or in progress. Fox 
holes provide excellent protection from small-arms fire, 
artillery shell fragments, airplane fire or bombing, and 
the crushing action of tanks. Fox holes at intermediate 
stages of construction afford limited protection, depend- 
ing upon the depth to which the excavation has pro- 
gressed. In some situations, where the need for rest is 
paramount, commanders may permit soldiers to cease 
excavation before full depth has been reached. For units 
within the battle position, fox holes are sited with the 
longer side generally parallel to the front; they arc dis- 
tributed around weapon emplacements to provide for all 
around defense. Troops remain in their fox holes only 
when an attack is imminent or in progress. The one-man 
and the two-man fox holes are basic types. Often both 
are employed in a given situation. If a choice of type is 
not made by higher authority, it is made by the squad 
leader. 

b. One-man Fox Hole (see fig. 26) . (1) Considera- 
tions affecting the size and shape of the fox hole are as 
follows: 

(a) It is as small as practicable in order to present 
the minimum target to enemy fire, 

(&) It is wide enough to accommodate the shoulders 
of a man sitting on the fire step. 

(c) It is elongated to the extent necessary to permit 
the use of large size intrenching tools in digging it. 

(d) Its depth from the surface of the ground to the 
fire steps depends upon the height of the man who is 
to occupy it, but under no circumstances is it less than 
4 feet. It should permit him to fire his rifle or other 
weapons while standing on the fire step. 

(e) Additional depth for a sump at one end provides 
for coliecting water so that it may be bailed out and to 



332 



provide space for the occupant's feet so that he may sit 
comfortably and have adequate clearance. An additional 
benefit derived from the sump is that a soldier crouched 
in the fox hole with his feet in the sump is able to push 
himself up through debris thrown on top of him by the 
crushing action of a tank. 

(3) In most types of soil the fox hole as thus constructed 
gives positive protection against the crushing action of 
tanks which pass directly over it in any direction, pro- 
vided that the soldier crouches down in the hole so that 
there is a 2-foot clearance between him and the ground 
surface (see fig. 27) . If the soil is very sandy or very soft, 
it may be necessary to revet the sides of fox holes to 
prevent caving. The spoil excavated from the fox hole 
is piled all around the hole as a parapet, leaving a shelf 
wide enough for the soldier to rest his elbows upon 
while firing his weapon. It should be spread low, so that 
die parapet is at least 3 feet thick, in order to provide 
protection against small-arms fire. An all around parapet 
made of the spoil excavated from the fox hole will be 
approximately 1/2 foot high. If turf or topsoil is to be 
used to camouflage this parapet, the soldier must, before 
commencing to dig, skim off the topsoil over an area 
10 feet square and set the material aside for later use. 
Upon completion of the fox hole, he places this camou- 
flage material over the spoil in a manner to imitate the 
surrounding ground. 

c. Fox Hole with Camouflage Cover. In some situa- 
tions, it may be practicable for the soldier to remove the 
spoil entirely to an inconspicuous place and to improvise 
a camouflage cover for his fox hole. In this manner, a 
fox hole position may be rendered practically invisible 
from either aerial or ground observation (see fig. 28) . 
This manner of camouflaging a fox hole position finds 
special application in defense against a mechanized at- 
tack supported by foot soldiers. Individual riflemen oc- 



233 




PLAN 

Figure 26. One-man fox hole. 



294 



cupying fox holes remain concealed until the tanks have 
overrun the position, whereupon they rise in the fox 
holes and combat the enemy foot soldiers following the 
tanks. 

<f. Two-man Fox Hole (see fig. 29) . The two-man 
fox hole is essentially two one-man foxholes dug ad- 




Figure 27. One-man fox hole affording protection against tanks. 



jacently. It is used when the mission requires men to 
work in pairs, or when, for psychological reasons, battle- 
field comradeship is desirable. The two-man fox hole, 
in most types of soil, gives protection comparable to that 
afforded by the one-man fox hole, except that it provides 
somewhat less protection against the crushing action of 
a tank's treads applied longitudinally, and slightly less 
protection against airplane strafing and bombing and 
artillery shell fragments. Figure 38 shows a two-man fox 
hole revetted in soft or sandy soil. 



235 



4. OBSERVATION POSTS. When observers are located 
in exposed positions, they should be well protected and 
concealed. 

a. Both the one-man and the two-man fox hole with 
camouflage cover, are suitable for use as observatiori 
posts. 

fa. The covered observation post (see fig. go) , although 
an excellent type, takes considerable time to- build. The 




Figure sS. One-man fox hole with camouflage ewer. 



overhead cover provides splinter-proof protection only. 
It is valuable only when well concealed. It requires si 
cubic feet of excavation per foot of length or a total of 
105 cubic feet per 5-foot section. 



236 





PLAN 

figure 25. Two-man fox hole. 

237 



5. FAN TYPE EMPLACEMENT FOR 57-MM GUN. 

Figure 31 iilustrates the fan type of emplacement for 
the 57-mm gun. It permits fire through an arc of approxi- 
mately 110 . If desired, larger sectors of fire may be 
obtained by modifying the parapet accordingly. This, 
however, decreases the protection afforded the gun crew. 




PUN* CROSS-SEtlvOKi-L VltVH 



Figure }o. Covered observation post. 

The ramp by which the gun is moved into and out o! 
the emplacement is normaliy in the rear of the emplace- 
ment, but may be in the forward part if terrain condi- 
tions require. Fox holes for the gunner and the assistant 
gunner are dug within the emplacement. Additional fox 
holes for odier members of the crew are dug in the im- 
mediate vicinity. The spoil is piled to both sides of the 
emplacement to form a parapet approximately %\/ % feet 
high and 3 feet thick. 

6. EMPLACEMENTS FOR ROCKET LAUNCHERS. 

There are two types of emplacement for the rocket 
launcher — the pit fox hole type and the pit type. 



238 



a. Pit Fox Hole Type (see fig. 32) ■ This emplacement 
is a circular pit, 3 feet in diameter and about feet 
deep. It is large enough for two men. It permits the 
assistant rocketeer to rotate as the rocketeer traverses 




Figure 31. Fan type emplacement for $j-mm. antitank gun. 

the weapon in order that the former will never be in 
rear of the weapon when it is fired. Its depth is such that 
the rear end of the rocket launcher at maximum eleva- 
tion in any direction will be clear of the parapet, in 
order that the back blast from the rocket will not be 
deflected into the emplacement and burn the occupants. 



Except in firm soil, this requirement can be met only by 
an emplacement which is too shallow to give protection 
against the crushing action of tanks; in such a case, fox 
holes for the rocketeer and assistant rocketeer are dug 




PLAN 



Figure }2, Pit fox-hole type emplacement for rocket launcher. 

nearby. As the antitank mission of the rocket launcher 
requires that it be kept in action against hostile tanks 
until the last possible moment, these fox holes will be 
occupied only as a last resort when a tank is about to 
overrun the emplacement. 

b. Pit Type (see fig-. 33} . In firm soil, the circular pit 
of the pit fox hole type emplacement (fig. 32) can be 
enlarged from 3 to 4 feet in diameter, with an additional 
circular pit 2 feet deep and 3 feet in diameter excavated 



240 



NOTE:: 
£1=011, 
REMOVED 

PLAN 




Figure 33, Pit type emplacement for rocket launcher. 

24 T 



in the center. This provides a circular fire step i foot 
wide and about feet below the surface. When tanks 
appear about to overrun the position, the rocketeer and 
assistant rocketeer crouch down into the lower pit. When 
the tanks have passed, the rocket . launcher is quickly 
returned to action. 

7. CONCEALMENT AND CAMOUFLAGE, a. Conceal 
mcnt and camouflage are of prime importance in con- 
structing defensive works. Measures for concealment 
from aerial observation must be planned from the begin- 
ning and carried on continuously throughout the work. 
Over both the area to be excavated and that on which 
soil is to be piled to form a parapet, all turf, sod, leaves, 
or forest humus are removed carefully, set aside, and 
replaced over the soil when finally completed. The table 
in paragraph 1 1 shows the area to be camouflaged in 
the construction of each, type of intrenchment described 
in this appendix. 

b„ In order to prevent discovery of the work during 
the process of excavation, camouflage nets should be 
suspended from stakes or trees before any excavation is 
undertaken. Excavation should be confined to the area 
beneath the camouflage net. The net is suspended at 
such a height above the ground as to permit the workers 
to excavate the emplacement without snagging equip- 
ment or intrenching tools on the net. After the excava- 
tion has been completed and the spoil covered with sod 
or other natural camouflage material, the net should be 
lowered close to the ground so as to be inconspicuous 
from ground observation. Nets are kept in position to 
conceal the emplacement when the weapon is not being 
fired. Arrangements must be made to lift or withdraw 
the camouflage net during action in order not to inter- 
fere with firing. In the figures showing construction of 
fox holes and emplacements, camouflage nets have been 





Figure 34. Gun covered by camouflage net. Unless net is properly 
garnished, or its edges drawn down, it may throw a strong shadow 
easily distinguishable from the air. 

243 




Figure jf. Use of camouflage. Unnatural camouflage betrays, rather 
than protects, a position. Material used should blend readily with the 

surroundings. 



244 



omitted, and the effect of natural camouflage materials 
subordinated in order to permit the details of construc- 
tion to be easily seen. 

Personnel, weapons, and equipment are camou- 
flaged whenever this will assist in concealing them from 
the enemy, or misleading him as to their true nature. 
For detailed discussions of camouflage, see FM 5-20 and 
TM 5-267. 

8. DISPOSAL OF SPOIL. The concealment of excava- 
tion is facilitated by the complete removal of spoil from 
the site, if this is practicable. When this is done, the 
excavation must be made somewhat deeper in order to 
obtain the same protection that is given when the spoil 
is used to construct a parapet. In disposing of spoil, care 
must be taken not to create paths or vehicle tracks which 
might disclose the position; the spoil must be dumped 
in inconspicuous locations such as along natural drain- 
age ditches, or along hedge rows, and at the base of 
trees. 

9. DRAINAGE. Provision must be made for taking care 
of rain water, surface drainage, and seepage. In general, 
a shallow ditch a few inches deep around the excava- 
tion will carry off surface water. Water which falls into 
an excavation or seeps in through the ground must be 
removed by bailing. 

10. REVETMENT. Revetment may be necessary in soft 
or sandy soil to prevent caving. It may consist of lum- 
ber, wire netting, small branches, brush, sandbags filled 
with earth, or other available materials (see fig. 38) . 
The dimensions of the excavation will have to be modi- 
fied slightly to provide for the space occupied by the 
revetment. 



345 




f 



Figure 36. Use of camouflage. Good camouflage breaks the outline of 
the gun find shield. IVken the outline is broken, concealment is facili- 
tated in relatively open terrain. 

246 




Figure ^7. Removing blast marks. Blast marks will disclose to air 
observation an otherwise carefully camouflaged gun. They should be 
removed and the natural appearance of the ground restored when- 
ever opportunity arises. 



247 



11. ESTIMATES OF EXCAVATION. The table below 
gives estimates of the quantity of excavation and the 
maiyhours required to construct the emplacements de- 





Figurc jS. Revetment of two-man fox hole. 

scribed in this appendix. The over-all dimensions of the 
area which.must be camouflaged in order to conceal each 
type of intrenchment should be especially noted. 

TABLE 



Weapon 



Rifle 

Rocket launcher 



57-mm AT gun. 



Type of 
emplacement 



Fox hole . . 
Pit fox hole 



Pit 
Fan 



Area to be 
camouflaged 
(feet) 



io by io. 
10 by 10 . 



5 by 5. 
24 by 39- 



Excavation 
(cubic feet) 



37 

a,5 without 

fox holes, 
87 with 

fox holes. 

50 

410 



Man-hours 
to construct 
in medium 
soil 



,</ 3 



3 

SI 



248 



APPENDIX II 

STREAM CROSSING EXPEDIENTS 
FOR ANTITANK GUNS AND VEHICLES 



1. GENERAL. It is frequently of vital tactical impor- 
tance to furnish antitank protection on the far bank of 
an unfordable stream when no bridges are available, 
and before engineer troops can establish bridges or vehi- 
cular ferries. The expedients described herein may be 
employed in such a situation. 

2. FLOTATION OF 5 7- MM ANTITANK GUNS— 
GENTLY SLOPING BANKS (see fig. 39) . o. If both 
stream banks are gently sloping, the 57-mm gun can be 
floated and towed across a stream by the use of brush 
rafts. The procedure is as follows: 

(1) The canvas cover of a ii/^-ton truck is used for each 
of two large rafts. The canvas cover of a 3^-ton truck is 
used for each of two small rafts. Brush bundles are built 
of sufficient size so that, when laid side by side in the 
center of the canvas, the canvas will extend beyond them 
about 18 inches on all four sides. The sides and ends of 
the canvas are raised in order to form side walls, and 
are secured by tie ropes. The walls of the canvas should 
be as nearly vertical as possible. 

(2) It is desirable to tie the brush in separate bundles 
of convenient size for movement by one man, before 
placing on the canvas. To build such a bundle, the fol- 
lowing steps are taken: stakes are driven into the ground 



249 



to outline the desired size of the brush bundle. Eithei 
green or dry brush is piled between the stakes and bound 
with rope, marline or old telephone wire. The ends of 
tjie brush are trimmed by cutting with a machete or 




Figure Flotation of 57-mm antitank gun on brush raft. 



other cutting tool so as to provide a square end to the 
bundle. 

(3) The gun is prepared for flotation by depressing the 
muzzle to horizontal and locking the trails. It is moved to 
the edge of the water by hand, trail leading, using suf- 
ficient personnel to control it with safety, and the trail 
placed on one of the smaller rafts, with spades extending 
beyond the raft. The gun is moved a short distance into 
the water, and a large brush raft placed beside each 
wheel. The other small brush raft is placed under the 
barrel and recoil cylinder of the gun. Two poles, 6 
inches in diameter, and about 12 feet long, are placed 
beneath the recoil cylinder of the gun. The ends of the 
poles should rest on the brush rafts beside the wheels, 



250 



and the centers on the small brush raft under the recoil 
cylinder. When the entire raft is floated, it is towed 
across the stream. A winch truck crossed early in the 
operation may be used, or the raft may be towed by 
hand. (See par.. 4 of this apendix.) When the water at 




Figure 40, Method of placing gun on raft by use of sandbag ramp. 

the stream's edge is not deep enough to allow the rafts 
to be inserted under the pole supporting the recoil 
cylinder, it may be necessary to construct a temporary 
sandbag ramp. Running the gun out over this ramp will 
allow the rafts to be placed beneath the poles. (See fig. 
40.) In the figure, the large rafts are shown at a distance 
from the wheels in order to illustrate the method of 
placing the various items. In actual use, they are placed 
close to the wheels, as shown in figure 39. In using rafts, 
care must be exercised to insure that the brush runs 
parallel with the barrel of the gun (perpendicular to 
the supporting poles) . 



251 



b. If available, rubber bdats of the five-man recon- 
naissance type are used instead of the two small rafts. 
Otherwise, the arrangement is similar to the above 
method. Somewhat higher flotation is thus provided. 

c. Ammunition and personnel must be separately 
crossed, utilizating brush rafts or boats, if available. 

3. FLOTATION OF 1 4-TON TRUCKS— GENTLY SLOP- 
ING BANKS. If both stream banks are gently sloping, a 
34-ton truck with three men and its normal load of am- 
munition and equipment can be floated across the 
stream by the use of four small brush rafts employing 
the canvas covers of ^-ton.or ii/g-ton trucks. (See fig. 
41.) Two poles, each 16 or 18 feet long, are cut. One is 
securely fastened with, wire or rope to the front bumper 
of the truck so that it projects approximately equally on 
each side; the other is similarly fastened to the rear 
bumper. Two brush rafts are spotted in the water so 
that the truck can be driven between them. The fan belt 
of the truck is disconnected to avoid flooding the motor 
with water. The truck is then moved under its own 
power until the front pole rests on the center of the 
rafts. This will float the front end of the truck. It is 
then moved, under its own power, still farther into the 
stream until the other two brush rafts can be placed in 
like manner under the ends of the pole fastened to the 
rear bumper. If the banks shelve so rapidly as to make 
the above method impracticable, the brush rafts may be 
lashed to the ends of the saplings before the vehicle 
is moved into the water. With the entire load floating, 
the truck is towed across the stream by one of the 
methods described for the gun. (See par. 2 of this ap- 
pendix.) On arrival at the opposite bank, the brush 
rafts are removed from the front end of the vehicle and 
the truck is pulled out of the stream or run out under 



353 



its own power. The poles are then removed and placed 
on the rafts and returned to the near shore. 

4. FLOTATION OF 3 4-TON TRUCKS - GENTLY 
SLOPING BANKS. The s^-ton truck can be ferried 
across a stream in a manner similar to that described 




Figure 41, Flotation of l^-fori truck on brush raft. 

for the 14-ton truck. Brush rafts employing canvas cov- 
ers of 1 l^-ton or larger trucks are used, constructed as 
described for the flotation of the 57-mm antitank gun. 
The poles fastened to the front and rear bumpers of the 
truck must be somewhat longer than those used for the 
14 -ton truck, and not less than 8 inches in diameter. 
The method of placing the brush rafts under the sap- 



353 



lings, and of propelling the truck across the stream, is 
similar to that described for the i/j-ton truck. 

5. FLOTATION OF LARGER VEHICLES. Flotation by 
rafts of vehicles larger than the s^-ton truck is usually 
impracticable. However, flotation of such vehicles, as 
well as s/f-ton trucks, may be effected by the employment 
of canvas tarpaulins. Although infantry units are not 
equipped with tarpaulins of suitable size for this pur- 
pose, large tarpaulins, 20 feet, 6 inches by 40 feet, are 
issued to each field artillery battalion in the division. 
These tarpaulins may be used to float trucks- as follows: 
a- A launching site is selected which provides access 
to the stream at a point where the drop-off is free from 
stumps, rocks, and roots, and deep enough under the 
center of a tarpaulin (placed as described in b below) 
to float the vehicle. Empty vehicles float with the water 
line approximately 6 inches below the top of the fender. 
It may be necessary to deepen the stream at the launch- 
ing and beaching points. 

b. The tarpaulin is spread at the water's edge and 
dragged over the water with a few feet of one end rest- 
ing on the bank. (See fig. 42.) Men should be stationed' 
about every 3 feet around the tarpaulin to hold the edges 
out of the water. 

c. A piece of canvas or a folded truck cover should be 
stretched underneath the truck from bumper to bumper 
to prevent U-bolts, spring shackles, and other sharp pro- 
jections from tearing the tarpaulin, 

d. Except with an extremely sharp drop-off, the truck 
should be driven onto the canvas front end first, using 
rear drive only. Men hold the sides and end of the tar- 
paulin out of the water as the truck is driven onto it. 
After the front wheels are afloat and the rear wheels 
lose traction, the tarpaulin is folded about the vehicle; 
the corners arc tied diagonally. The tie ropes along the 



354 




255 



sides and ends of the tarpaulins are tied to convenient 
points of the body of the vehicle. 

Caution: If the front wheel drive is engaged and the 
front wheels slip, there is danger of tearing the tarpaulin. 

e. When wrapped in the tarpaulin, the truck can be 
pushed outward by the crew until it floats. The truck 
may then be towed across the stream by a truck winch 
or by hand. 

f. Flotation of the 14-ton truck in the cover of a 2\/ 2 - 
ton truck may be effected in a manner similar to that 
described above. 

6. USE OF AERIAL CABLEWAYS. 0. General. When 
the banks o£ a stream are high and steep, it is impossible 
to launch or land heavy flotation equipment. For such 
streams and for ravines, up to widths of aoo feet, an 
aerial cableway may be used to make a crossing. Ordi- 
narily, this is prepared by attached engineers or mem- 
bers of battalion ammunition and pioneer platoons. 

b. Equipment, The following equipment will be re- 
quired: 

Two 2I/2- or iiy^-ton winch trucks. 

Four 8-inch steel snatch blocks suitable for use on 

winch truck cables. 
300 feet 3^-inch. manila rope. 
Two towing chains from 2i/g- or 11^-ton trucks. 

c. Selection of Site for Aerial Cable Crossing. The 
best type of site for an aerial cable crossing is one in 
which the loads can be taken from a high bank to a 
low bank, or between banks of equal height. To go 
from a low bank to a high bank is very difficult, and 
should not be attempted unless absolutely necessary. For 
a double-cable crossing, the site should have two large 
trees on each bank to support the cables; for a single- 
cable crossing, it should have one large tree on each 
bank. For a double-cable crossing, each pair of trees 



254 



should be located approximately 12 feet apart, and in 
such a place that the cables can be rigged directly in 
line with the winches on the trucks. The trees on the 
near bank should be not less than 30 feet and those on 
the far bank not less than 50 feet from the edge of the 




Figure 43. Method of measuring slack. Amount of slack, B, is meas- 
ured at center of cable. 

water. The farther away from the edge of the water the 
cables can be rigged on the far bank, the easier will be 
the crossing. In a crossing between banks of equal height, 
cable anchor trees should, if practicable, be located so 
that the point at which the load is landed is at the mid- 
point of the cables. This is an ideal condition, because 
the load will run by gravity to the center point, and if 
this center point is the point at which the equipment is 
to be landed, the crossing will be quickly effected and 
very easily controlled. 

d. Safety Precaution. It is possible to overload the 
cables. For this reason, it is essential that they be prop- 
erly rigged to keep the loads within their carrying ca- 
pacity. To be sure that they are properly rigged to carry 
loads up to 2,750 pounds (the weight of the gun) in 
double-cable crossings, allow 5 feet of slack for every 



257 



ioo feet of cable. Slack must always be measured at the 
mid-point of the cables. (See fig. 43.) Additional slack 
in the cables will decrease the load thereon, and increase 
the factor of safety for the crossing. 

e. Rigging. (1) Drive the winch trucks into position 
so that their winch drums are in line with the cable- 




Figure ^4. Aerial cableway ihawing movement of ij^-ton truck by 
double-cable crossing. 

ways. Anchor both winch trucks firmly in place. Trucks 
can be anchored by butting them against trees, or by in- 
stalling dead men or other suitable anchorages. For each 
cable, place a snatch block well up on the two trees on 
the bank of the stream where the trucks are located. 
These snatch blocks should be located high enough on 
the trees to allow for the slack required for the crossing. 
Place the cables through the snatch blocks, take them tc 
the far bank and fasten them well up on the anchot 
trees which have been selected on that bank. 



25S 



(2) To carry the 14- ton truck place one snatch block on 
each cable. Take a pole 4 inches in diameter, 12 feet 
long, and notched near each end, and fasten one end to 
the hook of each snatch block. This is the spreader pole, 
and should be wired to the hooks at the notches in order 




Figure 45. Aerial cableway showing movement of 5j-mm antitank 
gun by double-cable crossing. 



to keep the blocks from sliding together. {See fig. 44.) 
Fasten a hold-back line to the snatch blocks by tying 
the rope around them with a bridle. Fasten another rope 
in a similar manner and carry the free end to die far 
banks, where it. is used to pull the load across the stream. 
A 57-mm gun, in which the weight is distributed un- 
evenly, will require two pairs of snatch blocks and two 
spreaders. With this rigging the hold- back line is fastened 
to the near snatch biocksand the pulling rope is fastened 
to the far snatch blocks. (See fig. 45.) 



359 



f. Suspension. Place the load beneath the cables be- 
tween the trees and the edge of the stream. Rig this load 
to the snatch blocks, using the towing chain of the truck. 
(See fig. 44.) The load is picked up by tightening the 
two cables. When the winches are used to pick up loads 
as heavy as the 14 -ton truck, care must be taken to see 
that the winch trucks are operated together as a team, 
so that the load will be picked up uniformly and without 
jerking the cables, A sudden jerk may give an instan- 
taneous overload which will be sufficient to break the 
cables. Make sure that the hold-back line is snubbed 
around a suitable snubbing post, such as the towing 
hooks of the winch trucks. 

g. Crossing. Release the hold-back line gradually, so 
that the load will cross the stream on the cables at a 
uniform rate of speed. In some installations, it will be 
necessary to continue to pick up the cables all during 
the crossing. This will be true when a crossing is made 
from a very high bank to a low bank. 

h. Lowering. When the load reaches the far bank, 
lower the cables to permit the load to reach the ground, 
then unhook the chains and return the snatch blocks to 
the starting point for additional loads. 

i. Loads. Suitable loads to be crossed on the aerial 
cable-ways are l^-ton trucks and 57-mm guns. Lighter 
loads may be crossed by constructing a platform of logs 
and suspending it from the snatch blocks in the same 
manner as the 14 -ton trucks. Personnel, weapons, and 
other loads can be crossed by this means. Equipment 
available within the infantry regiment is inadequate for 
crossing loads as heavy as 1 i/ r ton trucks. When such loads 
must be crossed, assistance from engineers will be neces- 
sary. 

/. /tigging of Single-Cable Crossings. Single-cable 
crossings are suitable for loads as heavy as 1,000 pounds, 
when rigged with the amount of slack specified for 



360 



double-cable crossings. For loads as heavy as die 14-ton 
truck (3,500 pounds) and the 57-mm gun (2,750 
pounds) , a single-cable crossing requires a minimum of 
10 feet of slack for every 100 feet of cable. Although the 
^4 -ton truck and 57-mm gun may thus be crossed on a 
single cable, it is recommended that the double-cable be 
employed. It will be the exception to find a site which 
■will permit of sufficient slack for a single-cable crossing. 

Jc. Coble and Winch Capacity. The above limits are 
for both double- and single-cable crossings based on a 
cable and winch capacity of 7,500 pounds. Care should 
be exercised that the cable is in good condition, and free 
from kinks 01 snarls. 



361 



APPENDIX III 
GENERAL TRAINING 



1. SCOPE OF TRAINING. All members of the antitank 
company are given basic training as infantry soldiers. 
To permit flexibility in assignment of personnel, thus 
insuring the ability of the company to carry out its 
missions in spite of casualties, all members of the com- 
pany are trained in the operation of the gun, rocket 
launcher, and grenade launcher, in the technique of 
laying and removing antitank mines, in the identifi- 
cation of friendly and hostile armored vehicles, in the 
operation of the caliber .50 machine gun against air or 
ground emergency targets, and in the operation of 
organic motor vehicles. 

2. TRAINING OF ANTITANK SQUADS. The antitank 
squad is the basic fire unit of the antitank platoon. The 
successful operation of the antitank gun against hostile 
armored vehicles is the goal toward which all training 
is directed. To achieve this goal, members of each squad 
receive intensive and diversified training. This includes— 

o. Thorough knowledge by every man of the use and 
capabilities of the antitank gun and of all other weapons 
within the platoon. 

b. Training each member of the gun crew in the 
duties of all other members (see FM 23-75) > w i tn em_ 
phasis on prompt and sound decisions on the following 
points: 



262 



(i) The time at which the gun should be moved from 
a cover position to a firing position to engage hostile 
armored vehicles. 

(a) Positive recognition of hostile and friendly mecha- 
nized vehicles. 

(3) The conditions which justify moving the gun into 
a supplementary position to engage a target which can- 
not be engaged from the primary firing position. Vehicles 
may be employed to represent hostile tanks. Varied situ- 
ations should be presented, including those in which 
prompt decision to move into a supplementary position 
is necessary in order to engage tanks before they can 
reach cover. The maintenance of observation in the 
assigned principal direction of fire should be stressed. 
This training should be continued at frequent intervals 
to insure that the action of the squad will not be ham- 
pered by indecision on the part of the observer, irre- 
spective of which member of the squad is acting in 
that capacity. 

c. Constant practice in putting the gun into action, 
including moving from cover to firing positions, to sup- 
plementary and alternate positions over difficult terrain, 
and in shifting the trails to place fire quickly over widely 
separated areas. Training should be carried out with 
time as an important factor; as in b (3) above, it may 
be conducted by using vehicles to represent hostile 
tanks. These should simulate attacks in such a way as 
to require many short, quick movements of the gun to 
place fire in different areas, and presenting the squad 
with the most difficult situations to show clearly the 
penalties for failure to manhandle the gun properly 
and promptly. 

d. Instruction covering conditions limiting the open- 
ing of fire, in order to prevent premature disclosure of 
the gun position. Instruction in enemy tank tactics in 
order that gun crews may detect feints, decoys, or dummy 



263 



tanks employed to cause an ti lank guns to open fire 
prematurely, thus disclosing their positions. 

e. Thorough training in tracking and firing on mov- 
ing targets. 

f . Training in fire orders and fire control by the squad 
leader, and in keeping the gun in action, even though 
one or more members of the squad have become casu- 
alties. 

g. Constant practice in rapid displacements. 

h. Placing the gun in position under cover of darkness 
or smoke. This may be particularly applicable in open 
terrain, when nearby cover and concealment are limited, 
and a suitable natural cover position is not available. 

/. Instruction in the operation of the rocket launcher. 
Each man should be trained to serve as both rocketeer 
and loader in the rocket team. 

/. Evaluation of terrain lor the selection of positions 
affording cover and concealment and good fields of fire. 

It. Continuous emphasis on the importance of camou- 
flage and camouflage discipline when in uncoupling, 
cover, and firing positions, including means of reducing 
the effects of muzzle blasts. (See figs, 26 to 39, incl.) 
Precautions must be taken against over-camouflage which 
tends to disclose the gun position to air observation, 
or prevents the gun, when in firing position, from going 
into instant action against ground targets. 

(. Instruction concerning local security for the squad 
by the use of personnel, weapons, observation, and in- 
trenchments. 

m. Rigid physical conditioning to insure sufficient 
manhandling of the antitank gun, its accessories, and 
ammunition. 

3. MINES AND BOOBY TRAPS. As members of die 
regiment, all individuals of the antitank company are 
trained in the basic mine and booby trap subjects pre- 



364 



scribed for all personnel of the regiment. (See a below.) 
As platoons of combat units of the regiment, all platoons 
of the antitank company are trained in the subjects 
prescribed for all platoons of regimental combat units. 
(See b below.) The antitank mine platoon of the anti- 
tank company is trained in the additional subjects 
prescribed for all ammunition and pioneer platoons and 
die antitank mine platoon. (See c below.) All leaders 
in the antitank mine platoon and selected leaders of 
the other platoons of the antitank company are given 
the detailed training prescribed for selected leaders in 
all platoons of the regiment. (See d (1) below.) All 
leaders of the antitank mine platoon -are given the 
additional training prescribed for selected leaders of all 
ammunition and pioneer platoons and all leaders of the 
antitank mine platoon. (See d (2) below.) For methods 
and principles of training in the employment of mines 
and booby traps, see FM 5-30, TM 5-335, and TM 
1 1— 1123. 

a. All Personnel. Precautions to be taken in the 
vicinity of mines and booby traps; use of the portable 
mine detector; locating mines by probing, and marking 
mines to be picked up later by a clearing party; method 
of removing mines and traps by the use of wire or ropes. 

fa. All Platoons. In addition to the training prescribed 
in a above, all platoons of the antitank company will 
be trained in technique of mine laying; passage of mine 
fields (to include the use of portable mine detectors, 
probing methods, and wire or ropes) ; initial road .clear- 
ance. 

c. Antitank Mine Platoon. In addition to the training 
prescribed in a and b above, the antitank mine platoon 
will be trained in methods of laying, marking, and 
registering mine fields (see fig. 23) ; recognition of all 
types of mines and booby traps used by friendly and 
enemy troops; technique of disarming, lifting, and des- 



265 



troying activated antitank and antipersonnel mines and 
booby traps of all types used by friendly and enemy 
troops; gapping extensive mine fields. 

d. Training of Unit Leaders, (i) ALL PLATOONS. 
In addition to the training prescribed in a and b above, 
all officers and noncommissioned officers of the antitank 
mine platoon and selected officers and noncommissioned 
officers of all other platoons of the antitank company 
should receive extended and more detailed training in 
the technique of gapping mine fields to qualify them 
as leaders of mine field gapping details. 

(2) ANTITANK MINE PLATOON. In addition to 
the training prescribed in a, b, and c above, the platoon 
leader and all noncommissioned officers of the antitank 
mine platoon will receive the following additional train- 
ing to qualify them as leaders of lay-out, survey, and 
laying parties (elements of a detail charged with laying 
a hasty mine field) , and as leaders of gap clearance 
parties for gapping extensive mine fields: tactical use 
of antitank mines; tactics of enemy mechanized attack 
so far as they influence the tactical use of mines; recon- 
naissance and evaluation of terrain for suitable location 
of antitank mine fields; sketching; surveying with com- 
pass (or aiming circle) and tape; preparation of reports 
of location of antitank mine fields; map and aerial photo- 
graph reading, with particular emphasis on the appear- 
ance of mine fields on aerial photographs; supply and 
transportation of antitank mines. 

e. Concurrent Training. In addition to the training 
during periods provided for antitank mine training in 
training schedules, concurrent training in the use of 
antitank mines, the gapping of enemy mine fields, and 
precautions against booby traps should be incorporated 
in all other appropriate phases of unit training. Offensive 
phases should include the gapping of enemy mine fields, 
precaution against booby traps, and use of antitank 



266 



mines for protecting installations and in establishing 
road blocks. Defensive phases should include the laying 
of hasty mine fields, the protection of rear areas by 
mines, and the use of antitank mine road blocks. 

f. Training of Instructors. To attain maximum effi- 
ciency of instruction, it is desirable that one or more 
selected officers or noncommissioned officers of each 
platoon be given thorough preliminary training in all 
of the phases of antitank mine and booby trap training 
which are to be included in the training of their re- 
spective platoons. This can best be given in division 
schools, under the supervision of the division engineer. 
If such schools are not available, regimental schools 
should be conducted under the supervision of the regi- 
mental antitank officer. Instruction in appropriate sub- 
jects should also be included in the curriculum of offi- 
cers' and noncommissioned officers' schools. 

4. COMMUNICATION TRAINING, o. The first ser- 
geant, reconnaissance sergeant, transportation sergeant, 
bugler, and company and platoon messengers are trained 
in the following subjects: 

(i) Panels (types and uses) . 

(a) Pyrotechnics. 

(3) Use of radiotelephones, and radiotelephone pro- 
cedure. 

(4) Use of sound-powered telephones. 
{5) Wire splices and ties. 

(6) The communication sergeant, bugler, and messen- 
gers should receive such training in code practice as time 
permits. 

b. The radio operators are trained in the installation, 
operation, and maintenance of the company radio set. 
They may receive this training with the regimental head- 
quarters platoon. They are also trained in the use of 
radiotelephones and in radiotelephone procedure, 



267 



C. The supply sergeant is trained in the use o£ the 
radiotelephones and sound-powered telephones, and in 
radiotelephone procedure. 

<f. All members of gun squads are trained in the fol- 
lowing: - 

(1) Use of sound-powered telephones. 

(2) Wire splices and ties. 

e. All personnel of the command group of the anti- 
tank mine platoon, as well as selected personnel of the 
antitank mine squads, are trained in the use of radio- 
telephones and radiotelephone procedure, sound-pow- 
ered telephones, and visual signaling. Selected personnel 
within the platoon are trained as messengers. 

5. MOTOR MAINTENANCE. The bugler, messengers, 
and truck drivers are trained in driving and in driver 
maintenance. The transportation sergeant and automo- 
bile mechanic are trained in company maintenance. (See 
par. 24, and AR 850-15.) 



269 



APPENDIX IV 

DIRECTIVES FOR TACTICAL TRAINING 
OF ANTITANK COMPANY, INFANTRY 
REGIMENT 



1. GENERAL, 0. The directives which follow are de- 
signed, to assist the company commander of the antitank 
company and his subordinates in the preparation and 
execution of tactical exercises in which the company 
will participate with the regiment as a part of its field 
training. The directives are based on the tactics pre- 
scribed for the company in this manual and in FM 7-40. 
They are to be considered as guides only, and may be 
expanded or modified as local situations and the partic- 
ular needs of individual units may warrant. However, 
an antitank company will not be considered as being 
fully trained until it has participated in exercises cover- 
ing all phases of each type of operation outlined in 
these directives, 

b. In addition to serving as guides for the tactical 
training of units, the directives cover essential points 
which should be included by higher commanders in 
testing the tactical efficiency of antitank companies. 

2. PREPARATION AND CONDUCT, a. For a general 
discussion of the preparation of field exercises and field 
maneuvers, and for their control and conduct, see FM 
S1-5. 



269 



b. The company should be allowed to solve each 
exercise as its commander sees fit. The officer conducting 
the exercises should have in mind solutions to the 
various situations which will confront the company, but 
he should not force it, or any of its components, to 
follow his preconceived ideas as to what actions should 
be taken. Umpires may assess penalties or inject events 
which will cause the company or its components to act 
in a suitable manner should the need arise. However, 
these control measures must be logical and appropriate. 

c. Unit umpires must strive to make the exercise as 
realistic as possible and to provide impressions similar 
to those actually experienced on the battlefield. For the 
duties, responsibilities, and conduct of umpires, see 
FM 105-5. * u ^l use should be made of noncommissioned 
officers. 

3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES, a. Ample time should be 
given each unit to solve its problems logically. Recon- 
naissances must be made, subordinate leaders assembled 
when necessary, and orders issued. Full use must be 
made of such concealment and cover as the terrain 
provides. If troops are rushed through preparatory 
measures and are permitted to move freely over terrain 
under hostile observation and assumed hostile fires, they 
will acquire unnatural impressions which later may 
bring disastrous results. 

b. Throughout this series of directives it will be noted 
that the company commander, as regimental antitank 
officer, is required to submit recommendations for the 
antimechanized defense of the regiment. While this pro- 
cedure may be followed in many instances, the company 
commander must realize that the regimental commander 
may direct his plans and training officer (S-3) to submit 
recommendations, or he may arrive at his decision inde- 



270 



pendently, without requiring the company commander 
to submit his recommendations. (See FM 7-40,) 

4. CRITIQUE. For a discussion of the critique which is 
always a part of each field exercise, see FM a 1-5. 
Critiques may be held at any stage of the exercise. How- 
ever, it is usually best for the officer conducting the 
exercise and his assistants to make notes to be used at 
the termination of the exercise. 



5. DIRECTIVES-ANTITANK 

7-40, and 100-5) • 
a. Route March. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company of a regiment dur- 
ing a route march in one col- 
umn. 

Situation to be drawn so as to 
require— 

(1) Recommendations for the 
antimechanized protection o£ 
the regiment during the march. 



(2) Employment and conduct of 
the company, in accordance with 
the regimental march order, 
during a march over varied ter- 
rain— 

(a) Where occupation o£ suc- 
cessive positions along the route 
oE march is practicable. 

(6) Where such occupation is 
impracticable. 

(g) Reconnaissance along the 
route of march. 



COMPANY (see FM 7-20, 



Execution 

The recommendations of the 
company commander, made 
prior to the start of the march, 
should include the attachment 
of elements of the company to 
security forces and the disposi- 
tion and missions oC that por- 
tion of the company held under 
his control. Recommendations 
should be such as to provide the 
maximum protection to the regi- 
ment in coordination with the 
antimechanized measures of the 
battalions and of adjacent and 
higher units. 

The company commander's 
orders to the leaders of platoons 
held under his control should be 
clear and concise, and should, 
when practicable, direct the oc- 
cupation by platoons of succes- 
sive firing positions along the 
route of inarch. Otherwise, ele- 
ments should be distributed in 
the column and coordinated 
with elements of the cannon 
platoons and the battalion anti- 



271 



Scope 

(4) Security against air attacks 
and local attacks by small 
ground units, 

(5) Communication and liaison. 



Execution 
tank platoons. Coordination in- 
volving employment of cannon 
company elements should be ef- 
fected with the howitzer officer, 
through the regimental S-g, 

When displacing by bounds to 
successive firing positions, the 
distance to the next position and 
the need tor continuing protec- 
tion at the old position deter- 
mine whether the platoon should 
move as a unit or by squad eche- 
lon. In moving by squad echelon, 
one squad may displace forward, 
leaving two squads at the old 
position, or vice versa; or squads 
may displace successively, leap- 
frogging the squads remaining 
in position. 

The company commander 
should employ his reconnais- 
sance personnel, moving with 
the advance guard, to locate the 
most likely avenues of hostile 
tank approach, together with 
suitable firing positions and 
routes thereto, as well as loca- 
tions for antitank mines. If a 
definite threat of hostile tank 
attack arises during the march, 
the company commander should 
recommend that antitank mines 
be laid in localities where they 
will serve to canalize or block 
such attack. 

Air-antitank guards and roc- 
ket teams should be designated. 
Full advantage should be taken 
of available cover and conceal- 
ment, both while in movement 
and while halted. Subordinate 
elements of the company should 



272 



Scope 



b. Approach March. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in a daylight ap- 
proach march by an interior 
regiment; protected to the front 
by covering forces which are in- 
adequate to prevent mechanized 
attack. 

Situation to open with the 
regiment marching in route col- 
umn, with elements oE the anti- 
tank company attached to the 
advance guard battalion. An oral 
regimental order is issued re- 
quiring the immediate develop- 
ment of the regiment for ap- 
proach march. The order directs 
the advance guard (leading) bat- 
talion to advance on a broad 
front, relieves elements of the 
antitank company from attach- 
ment to the advance guard, and 
assigns to the antitank company 



Execution 
be constantly prepared to pro- 
tect themselves with their indi- 
vidual weapons and organic ma- 
chine guns in case of attack by 
aviation or small ground forces. 

The company command group 
should march with the regimen- 
tal command group; the com- 
pany commander should be with 
the regimental commander or, 
when necessarily absent, should 
maintain contact with him 
through a liaison agent, usually 
the second-in-command. All 
available facilities should be 
utilized to maintain communica- 
tion within the company and 
with higher headquarters. 

" Execution 

Clear, concise orders to pla- 
toon leaders should prescribe the 
Initial positions and methods of 
movement of a!l platoons, and 
should assign definite mission (s) 
to each antitank platoon. When 
an antitank platoon is assigned 
the mission oE protection against 
attack from successive areas or 
likely avenues of approach, the 
time (or conditions) oE release 
from each successive location, 
and a definite statement as to 
whether the platoon leader or 
the company commander is re- 
sponsible tor the reconnaissance 
oE successive location, should be 
included in the initial or in sub- 
sequent orders. 

When platoons are assigned to 
protect against attack from suc- 
cessive areas or likely avenues of 



273 



Scope 

the mission ol reinforcing the 
antimechanized protection of the 
leading battalion, and of pro- 
tecting the flanks and rear of 
the regiment, during the march. 



Situation to be drawn so as to 
require— 

(i) Movement on an extended 
tront with both flanks exposed 
to tank attack. 

{2) Prompt issuance o£ orders by 
the company commander in ac- 
cordance with the regimental 
development order. 

(3) Employment and conduct oE 
the company during the ap- 
proach inarch. 

(4) Reconnaissance of the zone 
o£ advance by antitank company 
personnel. 

{5) Security against air attacks 
and local attacks by small 
ground units. 

(6) Communication and liaison. 



Execution 
approach, displacement is ef- 
fected as described in the pre- 
ceding directive for route march. 

The company commander 
should employ his platoons, and 
platoon leaders their squads, in 
such manner as to achieve maxi- 
mum coordination with the ac- 
tivities of the battalion antitank 
platoons, and insure continuous 
all around protection. 

The reconnaissance officer, 
with a reconnaissance detail, 
should accompany the leading 
rifle elements. He should locate 
■and report tank obstacles, likely 
avenues of tank approach, ob- 
stacles to motor movement (and 
necessary detours}, suitable firing 
positions, and suitable locations 
for antitank mines. 

Assisted by available members 
of their command groups, pla- 
toon leaders should reconnoiter 
tor favorable routes of advance, 
the best method of crossing or 
avoiding dangerously exposed 
areas, and possible uncoupling, 
cover, and firing positions. Simi- 
lar reconnaissance should be 
made by squad leaders. Rocket 
teams should be designated. Pla- 
toon leaders should closely su- 
pervise the conduct of their 
squads, and promptly issue any 
nceessary instructions for changes 
in their dispositions or conduct. 
Maximum use should be made 
ot cover and concealment. 

As successive firing position 
areas are occupied, air-antitank 
guards should be posted, Guns 



274 



Scope Execution 

may be kept coupled or may be 
Uncoupled, depending on the 
terrain and the probability of 
mechanized attack. If uncoupled, 
guns should occupy cover posi- 
tions when available; otherwise, 
they should move directly into 
firing -positions. If guns are un- 
coupled, ammunition should be 
placed at the firing positions. 

The same measures for secur- 
ity against attacks by aviation or 
small ground forces, and for 
maintenance of communication 
and liaison, should be taken as 
are prescribed in the preceding 
directive for route march. 

c. Defense of Regimental Assembly Area. 



Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in the daylight 
defense of a regimental assembly 
area. This problem is a continu- 
ation of the preceding directive. 

Situation to be drawn so as to 
require— 

(i) Recommendation by the 
company commander for the an- 
timechanized defense of a regi- 
mental assembly area the loca- 
tion of which is announced dur- 
ing the approach march. 

(z) Preparatory measures to ex- 
pedite establishment of the anti- 
mechanized defense of the area, 

(3) Occupation by platoons of 
the firing position areas assigned 
by the company commander. 



Execution 
When directed to submit rec- 
ommendations, the company 
commander should make an im- 
mediate study of available maps, 
or aerial photographs, and o£ any 
available reconnaissance reports, 
of the area. After coordination 
with the regimental howitzer of- 
ficer, he should recommend the 
areas, or sectors, on the peri- 
meter of the assembly area to be 
protected by battalion antitank 
guns, together with firing posi- 
tion areas and principal direc- 
tions of fire for his own platoons 
and cannon company howitzers 
(if used) which will complete 
the defense provided by the anti- 
tank platoons and rocket teams 
of the battalions- He may recom- 
mend that any antitank guns 
and cannon company howitzers 
which are not required to be 



275 



Scope Execution 

cmplaced initially, be held mo- 
bile at a central location. He may 
recommend the laying of anti- 
tank mines i£ his knowledge of 
the situation and terrain is suf- 
ficient to warrant such action at 
this lime. 

(4) Inspection by the company Upon receiving the regimental 
commander to insure coordin- commander's decision, the com- 
ated antimechanized defense oE pany commander should issue 
the area. fragmentary orders directing an- 

titank platoons to occupy speci- 
fied firing position areas upon 
their arrival at the regimental 
assembly area, and assigning 
their principal directions o£ fire. 
If mines are to be laid, these 
should be issued to antitank pla- 
toons, or elements of the mine 
platoon attached to such pla- 
toons. 

Each antitank platoon should 
proceed rapidly to its assigned 
firing position area as soon as it 
reaches the immediate vicinity 
of the regimental assembly area. 
The firing position area should 
be promptly reconnoitered, be- 
ing divided between selected 
leaders it extensive. Air-antitank 
guards should be posted, cover 
positions occupied, and firing 
positions selected. 

Upon completion of his recon- 
naissance, the platoon leader 
should meet squad leaders for 
the issuance of orders. Orders 
should be brief and definite, pre- 
scribing the firing position, prin- 
cipal direction of fire, sector o£ 
responsibility for each squad, 
and the employment of rocket 



176 



Scope Execution 

teams in the protection oE the 
guns. Each antitank platoon 
leader should inspect his firing 
positions and make any neces- 
sary adjustments. 

The company commander 
should promptly initiate an in- 
spection of the antimechanized 
defense, employing his second- 
in-command to assist him. This 
inspection should determine— 
(i) Whether all tank approaches 
to the area are adequately cov- 
ered by observers, and by anti- 
tank guns, rocket teams, and can- 
non company howitzers, 
(a) Whether changes in the lo- 
cations or missions oE any anti- 
tank guns, rocket teams, or can- 
non company howitzers are re- 
quired to provide a coordinated 
and effective protection to the 
area. 

(3) Whether additional mine 
fields should be laid or mined 
road blocks established. 

Any changes in the disposi- 
tions ol subordinate elements of 
the antitank company required 
for the proper carrying out of 
their assigned missions should 
be ellected by the company com- 
mander at once. Immediately 
following his inspection, he 
should recommend to the regi- 
mental commander any changes 
required in the locations or mis- 
sions of his own or hattalion an- 
titank platoons, in the employ- 
ment of battalion rocket teams, 
or, aEter consultation with the 
howitzer officer, in the employ- 



277 



Scope Execution 

raent of cannon company howitz- 
ers necessary to provide effective 
antimechanized defense. If the 
situation is urgent, recommenda- 
tions should be dispatched by 
messenger during the course of 
the inspection. 

<f. Protection of Night Advance to Line of De- 
parture, Preparatory to Daylight Attack. 



Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in protecting the 
advance of the regiment, at 
night, from an assembly area to 
the line of departure, prepara- 
tory to a daylight attack; the at- 
tack to be made by the regiment, 
as part of a larger force, against 
a hastily-intrenched enemy 
known to possess armored 
strength. 

Situation to begin with the 
company disposed for defense of 
the assembly area. Situation to 
be based on regimental orders 
and to be drawn so as to re- 
quire— 

(1) Reconnaissance and recom- 
mendations - of the company 
commander for the employment 
of all regimental antitank means 
to protect the night movement 
of the regiment and the initial 
phase of the attack. 

(2) Establishment by the anti- 
tank company of antimechanized 
protection of the regiment dur- 
ing the night movement, 

(3) Movements of elements of 
the antitank company to initial 
firing position areas. 

(4) Reconnaissance by platoon 



Execution 
To protect the night move- 
ment of the regiment, the com- 
pany commander should recon- 
noitcr suitable locations for road 
blocks, mined and otherwise, 
and for firing positions from 
which guns will cover them, on 
all roads leading from the flanks 
into the regimental zone of ac- 
tion. The reconnaissance should 
also cover firing position areas 
and antitank mine field locations 
for the initial phase of the at* 
tack. Routes to firing positions 
and antitank mine field locations 
should be marked, and guides fa- 
miliarized therewith. Whenever 
practicable, the company com- 
mander's recommendation* 
should be submitted, and his or- 
ders issued, in time to permit 
subordinates to reconnoiter their 
positions in daylight. 

The antitank company com- 
mander should insure coordina- 
tion of all antitank means, con- 
ferring with battalion command- 
ers or antitank officers, if neces- 
sary. 

Road blocks for protection 
of the night movement should be 
established, and firing positions 



378 



Scope 

leaders for the employment of 
their platoons. 

{5) Orders of platoon leaders to 
execute missions assigned in the 
company order. 



Execution 
to cover them occupied by desig- 
nated elements, after dark. All 
movements after dark should be 
made quietly and without lights; 
they should he completed with- 
out confusion or loss of. lime. 
Radio silence should be en- 
forced. All mined road blocks or 
antitank mine fields should he 
guarded to prevent casualties 
among friendly troops or ve- 
hicles. Movements to initial fir- 
ing position areas should be 
completed prior to daylight. 

Platoon leaders, accompanied 
by their squad leaders, should 
reconnoiter assigned firing posi- 
tion areas both for the protec- 
tion oE the night movement and 
for the initial phase of the at- 
tack, including routes thereto. 
Routes should he marked. In ad- 
dition, if time permits, guides 
should be posted. 

The orders of platoon leaders 
should be clear and concise, and 
should assign definite missions. 
Each squad should be assigned 
a firing position covering a road 
block or mine field, or be di- 
rected to protect one or more ele- 
ments o£ the attacking bat- 
talion's. When firing positions 
and sectors of responsibility are 
assigned, they should be occu- 
pied after dark. Firing positions 
should be protected by desig- 
nated rocket teams. 

By questioning, platoon lead- 
ers should insure that all mem- 
bers of their platoons under- 
stand their duties. By inspection. 



279 



Scope 



e. Daylight Attack. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in the antimech- 
anized defense of a regiment 
during the initial stages of a 
daylight attack. 

Situation to be drawn so as 
to require— 

(i) At least one displacement by 
platoons to new positions, to in- 
cl ude— 

(a) Reconnaissance by platoon 
leaders to facilitate displacement 
to new positions. 

(b) Displacement to provide 
continuous antitank protection 
to the attacking echelon, upon 
capture of a terrain mask. 

(a) Gapping of hostile mine 
fields. 

{3) Replenishment of ammuni- 
tion. 

(4) Reconnaissance and control 
by the company commander, as- 
sisted by his command group. 



Execution 
both en route and after occupa- 
tion of initial firing positions for 
the attack, they should insure 
that all guns can perform their 
assigned missions, and so inform 
the company commander. 

During the initial phase of the 
attack, platoon leaders should is- 
sue tentative instructions for 
displacement and other matters 
outlined in the next directive. 

Execution 

After issuing tentative instruc- 
tions for displacement to squad 
leaders, leaders of platoons 
designated to protect leading 
battalions, accompanied by mes- 
sengers, and assisted by the pla- 
toon sergeants if the squads are 
widely separated, should follow 
the attacking echelon closely and 
reconnoiter for the displacement 
of their platoons. Reconnais- 
sance should cover the location 
of the attacking echelon, and 
nearby antitank weapons , likely 
hostile tank approaches, routes 
for displacement, firing and 
cover positions, and locations 
where trucks may be held under 
cover. Routes should be marked, 
or squad leaders informed of 
their location. 

Displacement should be made 
rapidly, as soon as the first hos- 
tile terrain mask has been cap- 
tured. Depending upon the need 
for maintaining protection at 
the initial position, displacement 
should be made by squad eche- 
lon—two squads displacing, with 



280 



Execution 
one squad in place, or vice versa 
—or by platoons as units, under 
the control either of platoon 
leaders or platoon sergeants. 
Squads should be met on near- 
ing new firing position areas and 
guided into position. Prepara- 
tions to repel mechanized conn- 
terattack should be completed 
without delay. 

Platoons operating under mis- 
sion orders should displace at 
the earliest practicable moment 
when the mission can no longer 
be accomplished from the posi- 
tions occupied. The company 
commander should issue timely 
orders for displacement o£ pla- 
toons held under his immediate 
control. 

The company commander 
should direct elements of the 
antitank mine platoon to assist 
in the gapping of hostile mine 
fields which delay the advance o£ 
front-line battalions. When ex- 
tensive mine fields are encoun- 
tered, he should designate gap 
clearance parties to be employed 
under the supervision o£ engi- 
neers, if the latter have been 
made available. 

The company commander 
should provide personnel for the 
operation of the company am- 
munition supply point, require 
platoon leaders to keep him in- 
formed of the status of ammuni- 
tion supply, and insure timely 
replenishment. 

The reconnaissance personnel 
should closely follow the attack- 



281 



Scope Execution 

ing echelon, reconnoiter . areas 
previously indicated by the com- 
pany commander, and report the 
location of tank obstacles and 
likely avenues for hostile tank 
approach, and locations for anti- 
tank mine fields and covered 
routes thereto. Information per- 
tinent to platoons should be 
promptly relayed to platoon 
leaders; reconnaissance person- 
nel should, when appropriate, 
guide platoons to new locations. 
The company commander should 
retain control of his company 
by personal observation and 
timely orders, and by employing 
his command group; as the situa- 
tion changes, he should prompt- 
ly recommend any required 
changes in the disposition or 
missions of the elements of his 
company. 

Communication between ele- 
ments of the company and with 
the regimental command post 
should be maintained. 

i. Reorganization and Confirmation of Attack. 

Scope Execution 

A problem involving the and- The company commander 

tank company during a reor- should promptly dispose his pla- 

ganization of the regiment and toons to protect the reorganiza- 

resumption of the attack. tion of the regiment. He should 

Situation to be drawn so as to recommend the laying of anti- 

require— tank mine fields when the situa- 

(i) Selection and occupation of tion and terrain warrant such ac- 

firing positions to protect the re- tion. These dispositions should 

organization of the regiment. be coordinated with those of the 

(a) Reorganization of the com- cannon company, battalion anti- 

pany and replenishment of am- tank platoons, and adjacent 

munition. units, and should insure adc- 

(3) Reconnaissance, orders, and quale protection for the flanks 



283 



Scope 

occupation of firing positions to 
protect the regiment when the 
attack is resumed. 

(4) Ammunition supply. 

(5) Communication. 



Execution 
and rear of the regiment. 

The company commander 
should replace casualties among 
his command group and platoon 
leaders, make any necessary ad- 
justments ot strength among 
platoons, and insure that am- 
munition is promptly replen- 
ished. Platoon leaders should di- 
rect the necessary reorganiza- 
tion of platoons, replace leaders 
or key men who have become 
casualties, and equalize the 
strength of squads, where neces- 
sary, by transfer among squads. 

The company commander 
should initiate early reconnais- 
sance for new firing position 
areas to protect the regiment 
when the attack is resumed. Af- 
ter securing the regimental com- 
mander's approval, he should 
issue the necessary orders and 
insure that movement is so con- 
ducted as to maintain continu- 
ous protection for the regiment. 

Platoon leaders should 
promptly displace their guns so 
as to carry out their assigned 
missions. They should initiate 
an early reconnaissance for new 
firing positions from which to 
protect the attacking echelon 
when the attack is resumed, and 
should issue appropriate orders 
to platoons. Movement to new 
positions is made as directed. 
Platoon leaders are responsible 
that a sufficient amount of am- 
munition is available at gun 
positions for completion of fire 
missions. 



283 



g. Occupation of Reg 
Position in Daylight. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company during the occu- 
pation of the regimental sector 
of a battle position, in daylight, 
by a regiment which is part of a 
larger Eorce. 

Situation to be drawn so as to 
require— 

(1) The company commander's 
reconnaissance and recommen- 
dations for the antimechanized 
security of the regimental sector 
of the battle position, to include 
laying of antitank mine fields, 

(a) Coordination of antimech- 
anized security' measures within 
the regimental sector and with 
those of adjacent and higher 
units. 

{3) Issue oE orders by the com- 
pany commander. 

(4) The platoon leaders* recon- 
naissance during movement to 
the battle position, and during 
its organiiation. 

(g) Orders of platoon leaders, 
and dispositions of platoons, 

(6) Construction of primary, 
supplementary, and alternate 
gun emplacements, in accord- 
ance with the regimental de- 
fense order. The regimental de- 
fense order prescribes the posi- 
tions and missions of the pla- 
toons and the quantity of am- 
munition to be placed on the 
positions. 

(7) Establishment of anti air- 
antimechanized warning system. 

(8) Ammunition supply. 



nenfaf Sector of Battle 

Execution 
Following a reconnaissance of 
the regimental sector of the 
battle position, cither indepen- 
dently or in company with the 
regimental commander as the 
latter may direct, the company 
commander should submit re- 
commendations to theregitnental 
commander covering— 
{1) Locations for antitank mine 
fields, and construction or im- 
provement of other antitank 
obstacles, natural or artificial. 

(2) Employment of platoons, in- 
cluding any elements ivith an 
outpost established by the regi- 
ment, to provide all around an- 
timechanized protection. 

(3) Plans for the coordination 
of elements of the cannon com- 
pany with antitank units in the 
antimechanized defense of the 
regiment. 

The employment of all ele- 
ments of the antitank company 
should be coordinated with 
battalion antimechanized plans, 
primarily for defense of the 
forward portion of the battle 
position, but with provisions for 
meeting attacks from flank or 
rear as well. Guns should be lo- 
cated so that their fires arc co- 
ordinated with antitank mine 
fields and other obstacles, and 
with the dispositions of the can- 
non company, adjacent units, 
and any antitank elements of 
higher units reinforcing the an- 
timechanized defense of the 



284 



Scope Execution 

regiment. Antitank mine fields 
may he laid by engineers, the 
antitank mine platoon, or by 
details from the troops occupy- 
ing the position, assisted by the 
mine platoon. They should be 
covered by small -arms fire to 
prevent their removal by the 
enemy, and guarded and 
marked to prevent casualties to 
friendly personnel and vehicles. 
If practicable, all antitank ob- 
stacles should also be covered 
by the fire of antitank weapons. 

Clear, concise, company or- 
ders, usually oral and frequent- 
ly in fragmentary form, should 
be issued to platoon leaders in 
time to enable them to recon- 
noiter assigned firing position 
areas, make dispositions, and 
initiate without delay the work 
of cmplacing guns. The com- 
pany commander should inspect 
the area and supervise the car- 
rying out of his orders. 

Depending upon the assigned 
mission, platoon leaders prompt- 
ly initiate reconnaissance for 
primary, supplementary, and al- 
ternate firing positions in for- 
ward battalion defense areas or 
In rear areas where their pla- 
toons are likely to be employed. 
Reconnaissance of supplemen- 
tary and alternate positions 
should be conducted while pri- 
mary positions are being or- 
ganized 

Clear, brief, oral orders 
should be issued to squad lead- 
ers in time to enable them to 



385 



Scope 



28* 



Execution 
reconnoiter assigned tiring posi- 
tion areas, make dispositions, 
and initiate wort of em placing 
guns without delay. For pla- 
toons emplaced in front-line 
battalion defense areas, ammu- 
nition should be placed at each 
emplacement; platoons which 
are to be held mobile should 
retain their ammunition on 
their vehicles. When ammuni- 
tion is placed at firing posi- 
tions, empty transportation 
should be assembled under con- 
trol of high authority in the 
rear area. Emplacements for 
rocket launchers should be con- 
structed in locations from which 
guns in firing positions can be 
given close-in protection. 

Provision should be made to 
insure prompt relay of any anti- 
air-antimechanized warning to 
all elements o£ all platoons, by 
proper utilization of available 
means of communication. 

The company commander 
should provide personnel for 
the operation o£ the company 
ammunition supply point. He 
should also provide means for 
replenishing ammunition, either 
from the company ammunition 
supply point, or by transfer of 
ammunition from one platoon 
to another whose expenditure 
has been greater. All ammuni- 
tion should be placed under 
cover in ammunition shelters. 



h. Occupation of Ret 
Position at Night. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company during the occu- 
pation of the regimental sector 
of a battle position, at night, by 
a regiment which is part oE a 
larger force. 

Situation to be drawn so as 
to require— 

fi) Daylight reconnaissance by 
the company commander, and 
his recommendations for the 
antimechanized defense of the 
regimental sector of the battle 
position, to include laying of 
antitank mine fields, all to be 
accomplished during darkness. 
(2) Orders of the company com- 
mander issued prior to dark- 
ness, and before contact with 
the enemy has become immin- 
ent. 

(5) Daylight reconnaissance by 
platoon leaders, 

(4) Platoon leader's orders. Day- 
light reconnaissance by squad 
leaders. Marking of routes and 
primary, supplementary and al- 
ternate positions for quick rec- 
ognition at night. Movement to 
assigned locations, construction 
of gun emplacements, and in- 
stallation of mines during dark- 
ness. 

(5) Establishment of anliair-anti- 
inechanized warning system. 

(6) Ammunition supply. 

(7) Readiness by daylight to 
meet a mechanized attack from 
any direction. 



venial Sector of Battle 

Execution 

The company commander 
should make a thorough recon- 
naissance of the regimental sec- 
tor of the battle position during 
daylight, cither independently 
or in company with the regi- 
mental commander as the latter 
may direct. He should employ 
his reconnaissance personnel to 
amplify and expedite this recon- 
naissance. He should then sub- 
mit recommendations covering 
the matters outlined in the pre- 
ceding directive. 

The company commander 
should issue clear, concise or- 
ders to platoon leaders at the 
earliest practicable moment fol- 
lowing announcement of the 
regimental commander's deci- 
sions on antimechanized de- 
tense. Orders should be frag- 
mentary whenever essential to 
permit platoon and subordinate 
leaders time for daylight recon- 
naissance and other necessary 
preparations. 

Platoon leaders should recon- 
noiter assigned firing position 
areas, formulate their fire plans, 
and submit them to the com- 
pany commander. When time 
does not permit submission of 
plans to the company com- 
mander, platoon leaders will is- 
sue orders to squad leaders 
without delay. Orders may be 
issued to assembled squad lead- 
ers, or successively to squad 
leaders in the respective firing 



287 



Execution 
position areas. In any case, pla- 
toon leaders should issue their 
orders in time to permit squad 
leaders the maximum amount 
o£ daylight in which to recon- 
noiter and mark the exact posi- 
tions to he occupied. 

The piatoon leaders' orders 
should assign each squad a pri- 
mary firing position; when time 
is limited, they should direct 
squad leaders to select supple- 
mentary and alternate positions 
as well as cover positions. Prin- 
cipal directions o£ fire and sec- 
tors oE responsibility should be 
pointed ou( on the ground 
whenever practicable. Positions 
for rocket teams in each squad 
should be indicated. It the con- 
ditions under which fire is to 
be opened have not been pre- 
scribed, platoon leaders should 
themselves prescribe the condi- 
tions. Wherever practicable, fir- 
ing positions should he so lo- 
cated that they will not endan- 
ger other nearby installations 
because of hostile fires directed 
against the guns. Provision 
shotild be made to insure local 
protection of weapons and in- 
stallations against hostile infil- 
tration. 

Prior to darkness, gun posi- 
tions, antitank mine field loca- 
tion (s), and routes thereto, 
should be marked and guides 
familiarized therewith. 

The occupation and organiza- 
tion of positions should be con- 
ducted quietly and without 



Scope 



i. Conduct at Defense. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in the defense 
by the regiment o£ an interior 
sector of the battle position. 

Situation to be drawn so as 
to require— 

(i) Employment oE the com- 
pany, in coordination with the 
antitank platoons of the front- 



Execution 
lights, and in strict compliance 
with any other measures for se- 
crecy prescribed by the regimen- 
tal commander. All positions 
should be reached without con- 
fusion or loss of time. Work on 
emplacements or obstacles, and 
laying of antitank mines, should 
be so organized as to accom- 
plish the maximum results in 
the lime available, consistent 
with the nature of the terrain 
and conditions o£ visibility. Pro- 
vision should be made to insure 
prompt relay of antiair-anti- 
mechanized warning to all ele- 
ments by proper utilization of 
available means of communica- 
tion. 

Provisions for ammunition 
supply should be similar to 
those prescribed in the preced- 
ing directive. 

By persona] inspection, the 
company commander should su- 
pervise the carrying out of his 
orders and insure that all ele- 
ments of the company are pre- 
pared by daylight to meet a 
mechanized attack from any di- 
rection. 

Execution 
Platoon leaders should desig- 
nate terrain features which hos- 
tile armored vehicles must 
cross, or pass, before guns open 
fire. Only such guns as have 
been designated in the company 
order should open fire on hos- 
tile vehicles or tanks apparently 
engaged on reconnaissance. 



289 



Scope 

line battalions, against hostile 
mechanized forces attempting to 
penetrate the main line of re- 
sistance. 

(2) Employment of the com- 
pany in coordination with ele- 
ments oE the cannon company 
and the antitank platoon of the 
reserve battalion against a hos- 
tile armored attack which has 
penetrated an adjacent regi- 
mental sector, 

(j) Action against attack by 
hostile air and foot elements. 

(4) Ammunition supply. 

(5) Communication and liaison. 



Execution 
Other guns should open fire 
only when the hostile lank at- 
tack is definitely committed and 
within effective range. The com- 
pany commander should closely 
supervise the action and 
promptly order any changes in 
the conduct of platoons which 
are necessary to repulse the hos- 
tile attack. 

In order to protect the regi- 
ment against attack by tanks 
which have penetrated an ad- 
jacent sector, the company 
commander should promptly 
recommend any necessary 
changes in the regimental plan 
for antimechanized defense to 
include employment of. elements 
of the cannon company (after 
consultation with the howitzer 
officer) and any available anti- 
tank guns and rocket teams or 
the reserve battalion. If the sit- 
uation warrants the laying of 
additional antitank mines, he 
should recommend such action. 
Any use of the antitank pla- 
toons of front-fine battalions, or 
of elements of the antitank 
company, which would unduly 
weaken the defense against a re- 
newal of the frontal attack of 
the main line of resistance 
should not be recommended. 
Upon receipt of the regimental 
order, the company commander 
should issue fragmentary orders 
by the most expeditious means 
available. By active supervision, 
he should coordinate and expe- 
dite the movement of all units 



290 



Scope Execution 

displacing to repel the attack 
and should insure that their 
fires are so coordinated as to 
cover effectively the regimental 
flank. 

Security against hostile air at- 
tack should be provided by con- 
cealment, dispersion, and use o£ 
fox holes. Additional security 
may be provided by nearby 
heavy machine-gun and rifle 
elements. 

Security against hostile fool 
elements should be provided by 
adjacent rifle units. When at- 
tacked by hostile foot elements, 
personnel other than that op- 
erating the gun should take 
cover in fox holes and open fire 
with individual weapons. 

The company commander 
should keep himself informed 
of the status of ammunition 
supply at all times. He should 
insure prompt replenishment 
of ammunition of any elements 
of the company whose supply 
becomes seriously depleted. 

By utilizing all available 
means of communication, and 
by employment of his command 
group, Lhe company commander 
should maintain constant com- 
munication with all elements of 
the company. Liaison should be 
continuously maintained with 
the regimental commander and 
the company command post. 

/. Night Withdrawal. 

Scope Execution 
A problem involving the an- Upon receipt of the regimen- 
titank company in a night with- tal warning order, the company 



291 



Scope 

drawal, by an interior regiment 
Of a target force, from a de- 
fensive position to a new de- 
fensive position located severa! 
miles to the rear. 

The regimental warning or- 
der to prescribe the location of 
the company assembly area and 
attach all elements of the com- 
pany which are located in the 
defense areas oE front-line bat- 
talions to those battalions for 
withdrawal to the vicinity ol 
the company assembly area. 

Situation to be drawn so as 
to require — 

(1) Daylight reconnaissance of 
routes of withdrawal and of the 
regimental sector of the rear 
defensive position. 



(2) Recommendations by the 
company commander for the 
antimechanized protection of 
the regiment (less the covering 
force) during the withdrawal. 

(3) Execution of the withdrawal 
by all elements of the company. 



Execution 
commander should promptly 
dispatch the second - in - com- 
mand or reconnaissance officer, 
assisted by other selected per- 
sonnel, to reconnoiter the routes 
of withdrawal, the company as- 
sembly area, and the new de- 
fensive position, and to act as 
guides, fragmentary warning 
orders should be issued to pla- 
toon leaders without delay; 
upon receipt of these orders, 
platoon leaders should dispatch 
personnel to reconnoiter routes 
to the company assembly area. 
The company commander and 
platoon leaders should remain 
with their units during the de- 
fensive engagement. 

The company commander's 
recommendations for the pro- 
tection of the withdrawal of the 
regiment, based on a map study 
and on reports received from 
reconnaissance personnel, should 
be submitted in time to be 
acted upon prior to commence- 
ment of the withdrawal. Ordi- 
narily, these recommendations 
should contemplate the protec- 
tion of defiles and the estab- 
lishment of local mine fields 
and road blocks on approaches 
intersecting the route of with- 
drawal . 

Daylight activities which 
might disclose the intention to 
withdraw should be avoided. 
Vehicles should be brought for- 
ward after dark to the company 
assembly area; prime movers 
only should be brought farther 



292 



Scope 

(4) Construction and occupa- 
tion of firing positions at the 
rear position before daylight, 
and the preparation of mined 
road blocks and laying of local 
antitank mines. 



Execution 
forward, if practicable, to loca- 
tions behind the first crest in 
rear of. firing positions. All 
movements after dark should be 
made quietly and without 
lights; regimental restrictions 
on the use of radio should be 
enforced. Elements attached for 
withdrawal to front-line bat- 
talions should withdraw as di- 
rected by the commanders of 
those battalions; other elements 
should withdraw under orders 
oE the company commander. 
The latter should regain con- 
trol of the entire company in 
the company assembly area. 
The company should move to 
the rear in compliance with 
regimental orders and carry out 
its assigned protective missions 
en route in a controlled and 
orderly manner. 

At the new defensive posi- 
tion, the second-in-command or 
reconnaissance officer, assisted 
by other members of the 
company reconnaissance party, 
should, prior to arrival of the 
company, select firing positions 
for the platoons and locations 
for road blocks and local mine 
fields, and secure approval of 
these dispositions by the repre- 
sentative of the regimental com- 
mander. They should mark 
these locations, and routes there- 
to, meet the company on its 
arrival, and guide the elements 
of the company to their posi- 
tions. The occupation and con- 
struction of firing positions, and 



293 



Scope 



k. Daylight Withdrawal. 

Scope 

A problem Involving the anti- 
tank company in a daylight 
withdrawal by an interior regi- 
ment. The situation to be 
drawn with the entire battle 
position under severe hostile 
pressure, following an unsuc- 
cessful counterattack by the re- 
serve battalion against a pene- 
tration on the right flank; the 
rifle company formerly consti- 
tuting the battalion reserve of 
the left front-line battalion has 
been designated as tfienew regi- 
mental reserve. 



The regiment is ordered to 
withdraw promptly to a new de- 
fensive position several miles to 
the rear. The regimental com- 
mander designates the newly 
constituted regimental reserve, 
under Lhe command oE the left 
front-line battalion commander, 
as the regimental covering force. 
A rifle platoon of the reserve is 
ordered to establish and defend 
a road block on an important 



Execution 
the laying of antitank mines, 
should be conducted as pre- 
scribed for occupation of a battle 
position. The guns should be in 
their new firing position areas, 
ready for action against mecha- 
nized attack, by daylight. 

Execution 

The antitank platoon at- 
tached to the right front-line 
battalion should withdraw un- 
der orders and control of the 
battalion commander. Upon ar- 
rival in the vicinity of the cov- 
ering force and release from 
battalion control, it should be 
met by guides who lead the 
respective elements to positions 
designated by the company 
commander. 

The platoon attached to the 
reserve battalion employed in 
the unsuccessful counterattack 
should reorganize and withdraw 
in accordance with the battalion 
commander's orders. It should 
provide antitank security to the 
battalion throughout its ivith- 
drawal and rearward move- 
ment, using the remaining gun 
and available rocket teams, in 
coordination with the weapons 
of the battalion antitank pla- 
toon. 

Instructions should be issued 
for the immediate forward 
movement of prime movers by 
infiltration. Release of vehicles 
to platoons attached to bat- 
talions should be as far forward 
as the situation and hostile fires 



294 



Scope 

highway entering the zone of ac- 
tion of the regiment from the 
critical (right) flank. 

The antitank company is dis- 
posed with one platoon in posi- 
tions protecting the reestablished 
defense area of the right front- 
line battalion, one platoon at- 
tached to tire battalion com- 
mitted in the' counterattack (pla- 
toon now badly disorganized, 
with two guns out ol action), 
and the company, less two pla- 
toons, in the vicinity of the regi- 
mental reserve, with guns in fir- 
ing positions. 



Action to be initiated by a 
regimental order directing— im- 
mediate withdrawal by the regi- 
ment; attachment of the anti- 
tank platoon in the defense 
area of the right front-line bat- 
talion to that battalion for 
withdrawal to the location of 
the covering force only, there- 
after to revert to company con- 
trol; the continued attachment 
of the platoon with the bat- 
talion committed in the coun- 
terattack throughout its with- 
drawal, and the attachment of 
one antitank mine squad to 
that battalion; the attachment 
of one antitank squad and one 



Execution 
will permit. Movement and re- 
lease of vehicles should be un- 
der supervision of designated 
personnel of the company com- 
mand group. 

Firing positions for all anti- 
tank elements to be attached to 
the covering force should be oc- 
cupied promptly and without 
confusion. Ammunition suffi- 
cient only for estimated needs 
should be unloaded from vehi- 
cles. Prime movers should be 
retained near the gun positions. 

The company commander 
should initiate early reconnais- 
sance, in accordance with or- 
ders of the covering force com- 
mander, to protect the further 
retrograde movement of the 
regiment. Such protection 
should provide security against 
hostile armored elements at- 
tempting pursuit. 



295 



Scope 

and Lank mine squad to the: rifle 
platoon defending the road 
block; the attachment of the 
company, less detachments, to 
the covering force. It is assumed 
that smoke is available to facili- 
tate the initial phase of the with- 
drawal. 

I. Delaying Action. 

Scope 

A problem involving the anti- 
tank company in delaying ac- 
tion on successive positions. The 
situation to be drawn with the 
regiment (reinforced) conduct- 
ing independent delaying ac- 
tion as a general covering force 
for a larger unit and required 
to arrive at the first delaying 
position approximately 1 hour 
before the enemy can make con- 
tact 

Situation to be drawn so as 
to require: 

<i) Recommendations of the 
company commander for the 
antimechanized protection of 
the first delaying position. 

(a) Employment of the elements 
of the company which may he 
attached to the outpost, and 
their withdrawal to the first de- 
laying position. 

(3) Reconnaissance of positions 
on the flanks and rear. 
{4) Employment of the com- 
pany on at least two delaying 
positions, to include use of an- 
titank mines. 

(r,) Employment of some or all 
elements of the company, pro- 
tected by riflemen, on intermc- 



Execution 



Execution 
Upon arrival at the first de- 
laying position, the company 
commander, assisted by his 
reconnaissance personnel, should 
make a rapid reconnaissance. 
This should be made indepen- 
dently or in company with the 
regimental commander, as the 
latter may direct. He should 
then recommend the initial dis- 
positions of platoons and any 
locations where antitank mines 
should be laid in front, on the 
flanks, or closely in rear of the 
first delaying position. Ordinar- 
ily, recommendations should 
contemplate the attachment ot 
the bulk of the company to bat- 
talions and security elements, 
and the holding mobile of the 
remainder of the company, if 
any, under regimental control, 
for protection of the flanks and 
rear. 

Elements initially attached to 
the outpost should disrupt, 
canalize, and delay hostile ar- 
mored forces. If practicable, 
they should withdraw, when di- 
rected hy the outpost com- 
mander, by the leap-frog meth- 
od, and continue their delaying 



396 



Scope 

diate delaying positions. 
(6) Ammunition supply. 



F.xrcuJion 
action en route. These elements 
may revert to regimental con- 
trol upon withdrawal to the 
first delaying position. Upon 
withdrawal, any antitank mines 
previously laid should be left 
in place to delay the enemy ad- 
vance. 

When any elements of the 
company are to be held under 
regimental control, the company 
commander should promptly 
dispatch reconnaissance person- 
nel to reconnoiter the flanks ol 
the first delaying position for 
tentative firing positions. Loca- 
tions for antitank mines should 
also be sought. As time permits, 
this reconnaissance should be 
extended to the rear to include 
the flanks of the next delaying 
position. Similar reconnaissance 
to the rear should be initiated 
promptly by leaders of elements 
of the company attached to bat- 
talions or security detachments. 
These elements should either 
be reinforced by members of 
the company command group 
in order to facilitate this recon- 
naissance, or should be furn- 
ished by the company comman- 
der with information secured 
by his reconnaissance personnel. 

Elements o[ the company at- 
tached to sulxtrdinate units of 
the regiment usually will oper- 
ate initially as tor defense, 
opening fire at maximum effec- 
tive ranges. Firing positions 
should be located near topo- 
graphical crests, and prime 



397 



Scope 



298 



Execution 
movers held close to gun pflsi 1 
lions. Posiliom on forward 
slopes should be avoided. Any 
units held under regimental 
control should be able to move, 
without delay or confusion, to 
selected positions on the flanks 
or to the rear. Withdrawal to a 
rear position should be made 
rapidly and without loss of con- 
trol. 

Leaders of antitank elements 
attached to subordinate units of 
the regiment should initiate 
early reconnaissance o£ succeed- 
ing delaying positions and 
routes ot withdrawal. 

During movement between 
positions, antitank elements 
should be constantly prepared 
to go into action in any direc- 
tion without delay. Rapidity of 
decision and action is essential. 

Ammunition should be kept 
mobile; a sufficient amount for 
estimated needs only should be 
placed at firing positions, Or- 
ganic machine guns and truck 
drivers' individual weapons are 
used for protection of vehicles. 
The platoon sergeant should su- 
pervise the resupply of ammu- 
nition, if resupply is required. 
The company commander should 
make an early estimate of addi- 
tional antitank mines and am- 
munition required, request S-4 
to procure them, and employ 
members of his command group 
to insure delivery o£ ammuni- 
tion at the proper times and 
places to all elements of the 
company. 



INDEX 



Action: , Paragraph 
Against hostile mechanized attack 15, 145, 193 

By company commander prior to occupation o£ 

regimental sector 76 

During reorganization of regiment 57, 169 

In case of air attack 14. 27. 103 



Prior to occupation of defense area. 



.76, 77, 124, 125 
143, 208-210 



Readiness for G, 129 

When advance is definitely halted 59,118 

When advance is held up r,G 

Administration: 

Medical service and evacuation 17, 18, 176 

Motor maintenance 2. 

Supply 20-a 

Administration group: 

Amorer-artificer 

Automobile mechanic 

Company clerk 

Cooks and cooks' helper 

Mess sergeant 

Supply sergeant 

Transportation sergeant 

Administrative orders 22 

Advance guards, support or 27, 104, 167, 184 

Aerial cableways App. II 

Aid men, company 18 

Aid stations 17 

Air attack, action in case of M> a 7> lo 5 

Alternate firing positions 6 

Ammunition bearer 137 

Ammunition supply 9,21,54,83 

ng, 131, 183, 215 



Antiaircraft and antimechanized warning system: 

Company 13 

Hatoon \ 103 



Page 
27. 167, 

9S 
74, 190 
s:0, 4-S, 

9 e > 97. 
'49. '5' 

165, 224 

14, 156 
76, 146 
74 

29, 197 
40 

3i 



42, 127, 

189, 302 
249 
*9 
29 
26, 42, 

'25 
14 
160 

20,31, 73, 
104, 148, 

156, aoo, 

227 

25 
125 



299 



Antiaircraft and antimechanized warning Paragraph Pagre 

system— Continued 

Regimental 13 25 

Antiaircraft and antimechanized warning signals. ... 13 25 

Antiaircraft security 14,40,53,84 26,56,7a, 

129, 181, 21s 104,156, 
199. 237 

Antimechanized protection: 

Assembly areas : 43, 108, 168, 1S8 60, 134, 

1 89, 209 

Bivouac areas 26,32,33,104 41,52,53, 

168, 185 127, 189, 
204 

Ciose-in .. , 15,52,80,193 17,72, 

103,315 

During motor movements 29,167,169,184 50, lSg, 

1 90, 203 

Marches ..25-31,104,167 41,127, 

184, 186, 187 i8g, 202, 
206, 209 

In special operations 62-69,91-96,120, 78,112, 

132, 199-206, 216 148, 156, 
217,227 

Antitank company. (Sec Company, antitank.) 

Antitank mine platoon. {See Mine platoon, antitank.) 

Antitank platoon. (See Platoon, antitank; 
Battalion antitank platoon.) 

Antitank rifle grenades 2 6 

Antitank rocket launcher 2 6 

Antitank rockets: 

Employment 2 fi 

Use as antitank mines 152 174 

Antitank squad. (See Squad, antitank.) 

Approach march: 

Action in case of air attack 14 26 

Antiaircraft security 13 25 

Antimechanized security .13,38,4041,169 25,55,56, 

59> '9» 

Antitank company 37-4' 55 

Antitank platoon 105-107,186,187 130,206, 

209 

Antitank mine platoon.. 169 189 

Antitank squad 146 168 

Airborne operations, defense against 94 116 

300 



Paragraph Tnge 

Areas, firing position 6 i<i 

Armament, equipment, transport: 

Antitank company , 1-4 ) 

Mine platoon 149,153 i'JS, 175 

Assembly areas, antimechanized defense: . . ,4a, 43, 108, 168- 60, 134, 

18S 189,209 

Assembly positions 42,43,108 t», 134 

Attachment for rations. (See Classes o£ supply.) 
Attack: 

Action ivhen advance is halted. .■ 57, 59, 1 15, 1 18 74, 76, 

169, 195 145, 146 
190, 216 

Advance against fortified position 65,202 87,221 

Antitank company in 48-59 67 

Antitank platoon in 109-120,177,178 136,197 

189-206 2tO 

Antitank mine platoon in 169 190 

Antitank squad in 145, 146 167, 168 

Assembly positions in 42,43,108 60,134 

At night 60,118,198 77,146, 

217 

Beachhead operations 68,204 90,229 

Command post security . . ". 51, 172 72, 194 

Communication during. {See Communication.) 

Conduct 48-69,109-120 67,136 

139-148, 169, 189-206 163, 190, 

210 

Control . . . 9' 1 1 7 ao - M5 

Coordination 8, 101, 166, 180 19, 123, 

187, 198 

Daylight withdrawal 89, 134, 171, ssi8 108, 158, 

192, 228 

Decentralization o£ control 9 20 

Displacements 55' HQ. >4<5, 169 73, >^8, 

16B, 190 

Duties and positions o[ leaders 1, 8, 12, 8 1, 98 1, 19, 24. 

137.>50. >74 ">3. "9 
160, 17s, 

'95 

Individual protection App. I 231 

Night attacks 60, i 18, 198 77, 146, 

217 

Night withdrawals 88, 133, 171,217 1.05, 157, 

192, 227 



301 



Attack-Continue;! Paragraph Page 

Orders 11,22.37,47 34,38,55, 

1 20, 191 GG, 1 48- 

212 

Plans 40-47- '^5 G$,GG, 

208 131,224 

Positions, firing 6 14 

Preparation for daylight 118 146 

Pursuit '. 58,117.197 75- '45' 

317 

Raids 6fi, 132, 203 88. 156. 

22 1 

Reconnaissance during. (See Reconnaissance.) 
Reorganization during. (See Reorganization.) 
Security during. (See Security.) 

Special operations Ga-6r), 120, 199-206 78,148, 

217 

Automobile mechanic 1,24 1,4° 

Bangalore torpedoes, use us antitank mines. '5* J 74 

Barriers 159 178 

Basic privates 1 1 

Battalion aid station 17 29 

Battalion antitank platoon: 

Action against hostile mechanized attack 193 215 

Advance guard, support of 184 202 

Ammunition supply 21,183,215 31,200, 

827 

Antiaircraft security ." 213 227 

Approach march 186 20G 

Assembly areas, protection and occupation 188 209 

Attack in woods 199 217 

. Attack of— 

Fortified positions 202 221 

Towns 200 218 

Beachheads 204 222 

Bivouacs 185 204 

Combat outposts, support of 207 22 3 

Command group, organization and duties 124 149 

Communication 182 199 

Composition ] 73 1Q 5 

Conduct of defense 212 226 

Coordination ,8 » »9 8 

Daylight approach march 186 ao6 



302 



Battalion antitank platoon— Continued Paragraph Fa^e 

Daylight withdrawal Si8 238 

Delaying action 219 229 

Desert operations 305 222 

Duties of— 

Messenger : 174 195 

Platoon leader 174 155 

Platoon sergeant 174 195 

Fire plan ao8 224 

Flank guard, support of 184 202 

Fortified position, attack of 202 221 

General outpost, support of 207 223 

Local security , 314 327 

Marches- 
Approach 186,187 206,209 

Route 184 202 

Medical service and evacuation 17—18,170 39, 137 

Messenger, dnties 174 19,-, 

Missions 148,207 171,223 

Mountain operations 206 222 

Night employment 198 217 

Night withdrawal 217 227 

Occupation of firing positions 193,211 214,226 

Organization of firing positions 194,211 315,226 

Platoon leader, duties 174 195 

Protecting reorganization of battalion 195 216 

Pursuit 197 217 

Raids 203 aai 

Rear guard, support of 184 202 

Reconnaissance— 

During attack 194 215 

In defense 208,309 224,225 

Prior to attack 190 211 

Reorganization 196 21G 

Retrograde movements 217-219 227 

River line, attack 201 318 

Special operations 1S9--20G, 216 3'o, 227 

Tactical employment 177 197 

Towns, attack 200 218 

Warning service 181 199 

Withdrawal 2t7,ai8 227,3^8 

Woods, attack in 199 217 

Battalion reorganization, protection of 195 2 16 

Battlefield recovery of vehicles, weapons, and other 

supplies , S3 38 

303 



Paragraph Page 

Beachheads, establishment and support 68,304 90,222 

Bearer, ammunition 137 160 

Bivouac area, antimechanized defense 32,33,104,108 52.53, 

185 127, 189, 
204 

Booby traps and mines, training in. (See Mines and 
booby traps, training in.) 

Bugler, duties 1 1 

Camouflage App, I 231 

Cannoneers, duties 137 160 

Classes of supply 21-23 31 

Class V Supply 21,175,183 31,196, 

200 

Close-in defense against mechanized attack 15,32,80 27,72, 

103 

Combat duties of company commander 1 , 8-1 2, 76, 77 1 , 1 9, 96, 

81 97, 103 

Combat outpost 73,122,207 92,148, 

223 

Command group: 

Antitank company 1 1 

Antitank platoon 98 ng 

Battalion antitank platoon J74 195 

Mine platoon 149 172 

Command post, protection 51, 172 72, 194 

Communication: 

Company 3 10 

Messengers 1,98 1,119 

Platoon 3,99,182 10,121, 

] 99 

Radio operators 1 1 

Sergeant. i 1 

Signal equipment 3 10 

Squad 138 162 

Training App. Ill 262 

Company, antitank: 
Action— 

During reorganization of regiment 57 74 

When advance is definitely halted 59 76 

When advance is he!d op 56 74 

Administrative group 1 1 

Airborne operations, defense against 94 116 



304 



Company, antitank— Continued Paragraph Page 

Ammunition supply 21,54,83 3ii73> 

104 

Antiaircraft security 14,40,53,84 26,56,72, 

104 

Approach march 3S-41 5» 

Armament 2-4 6 

Assembly areas ... 43,43 6b 

Attack employment in , 47-69 66 

Basic privates 1 1 

Beachheads 63 90 

Bivouac areas sC, 33,33 4 l >52>53 

Hugler t 1 

Close-in defense 52,80 72.103 

Command group t 1 

Communication 3 10 

Composition , 1-4 1 

Conduct of defense 79 ">2 

Counterattack, support 8a 103 

Daylight- 
Approach march 40 56 

"Withdrawal 87,89 105,108 

Defensive combat 70-96 9' 

Defensive doctrines 71 91 

Delaying action 90 110 

Desert operations 67,95 88,118 

Development order 37.4° 55.56 

Displacements 55 73 

Duties and position of company 

commander 12,38,49,81 24,55,71, 

103 

Employment in offensive combat 34-69 54 

Equipment 3 10 

Fortified position, attack 65 87 

Location of company commander 

in combat B-12, 38, 49, 81 I9>55-71< 

103 

Marches- 
Approach 37-4 1 55 

Daylight 40 56 

Distribution of elements. .. 38 55 

Movement of motor vehicles $9 56 

Night 41 59 



305 



Company, antitank— Continued Paragraph Page 

Route 36-28 41 

Medical service and evacuation 17-19 89 

Missions 5.37.47.72,7V 13,55.66, 

9^-97 

Mountain operations 69,96 90,118 

Movement of motor vehicles 39 15G 

Night attack Go 77 

Night marches . . . 28-4 1 40, 

Night withdrawal 87,88 105 

Occupation and organization o[ firing positions.. 78 101 

Offensive combat 34-69 54 

Orders 11,19,32,37,47,77 24,30,38, 

55. 66, 97 

Organization t 1 

Outposts, Support of 7g 92 

Plans 8,46,77 19,65,97 

Position of company commander in combat 49,81 71, 103 

Protection of command post 51 72 

Pursuit 58 75 

Raids 66 88 

Reconnaissance 10,40,45,50,77 33,56, 64, 

7L97 

Reorganization 57 74 

Retrograde movements 86-90 105 

River line operations 64,93 82, xl 5 

Route marches 26-28 41 

Special operations 02-69,91-96 78,113 

Supply 20-23 31 

Support of counterattack 83 103 

Support of outpost 73 93 

Tactical considerations 74 93 

Training: 

General App. Ill s6a 

Tactical directives for -App. IV 269 

Towns, operations in . . , , (S3, gj 8i, 113 

Use of mines 75 95 

Weapons 2 6 

Woods, operations in 62, 9 1 78, 112 

Withdrawals 86-90 105 

Company, antitank, of reserve regiment 61,85 7®- io 4 

Company aid men and liuer bearers t& 29 

Company ammunition supply point 21,47,77 31,66,97 

Company clerk l 1 



306 





Paragraph 


Page 




i, 8-t?, 81 


1, 19, 103 






1 






1 1 


Composition of— 








i-4 


1 






172 




97 


"9 




136 


160 




173 


>95 


Conduct of attack: 


Antitank company 




67 






>36. 




ifig 


190 




139-148 


163 


Battalion antitank platoon 


(89-20G 


210 


Conduct oE defense: 










9 1 


Antitank platoon 


1^1-135 


148 






191 






163 






223 






1 




33,38,46, 48,77,100, 


19, 41. 4»- 




• ioi, 166, 170, 209 


53>55> 6 5' 






67,97. 






121, 123. 






187, 191, 






a as 




82 


103 




148 


171 






105 










H 












6 




87, 8g, 134, 171, 208 


105, to8, 






158, 192, 






234 




9°> '35' '7>, sig 


1 10, 158, 






192,229 


Defense: 








94 


116 




ai, 8a, lai, 189, si k 


31 , 104, 






156, goo, 






S27 






307 



Defense— Continued Paragraph Page 

Antiaircraft security 13,14,40,84,129,213 85,26,56, 

104, 156, 

Antimechanized, close-in 15,130,144,214 £7,156, 

167, 287 

Combat outposts, support o£ , 73, 207 92,333 

Conduct of 79,128,212 102,155, 

226 

Counterattacks , 8a, 128 103,155 

Covering an obstacle 148 ■ 171 

Delaying actions 90, 135, 171,219 no, 158, 

Employment of- l $ s ' 229 

Antitank company -73-90 92 

Antitank platoon 121-135 148 

Antitank mine platoon 170 191 

Antitank squad , 139-148 163 

Battalion antitank platoon 207-219 223 

Fire plan 77,125,208 97.151. 

224 

Individual protection 16, App. I 28,231 

Local security 13, 14, 103, 130, 214 25, 26, 

J*5' '56, 
227 

Missions 5, iai, iaa, 139, 165. 207 12, 148, 

163, 186, 
223 

Mine fields and road blocks 155-158 17C 

Occupation of firing positions 6,78,127,142,211 14,101. 

154, 165, 
22O 

Orders 77,126,210 97,153, 

226 

Organization of the ground 78, 127, an 101, 154, 

226 

Outposts, support of. 73,207 92,223 

Reconnaissance in. (See Reconnaissance.) 

Retrograde movements . . . .86-90, 133-135, 171, 217—219 105, 157, 



River line, defense of. (See River line operations.) 
Special operations 91-96,132,216 112,156, 

Towns, defense in. (See Towns, operations in.) 
Withdrawal. (See Withdrawals.) 



192, 227 

156. 
227 



308 



Dclc-nse— Continued Paragraph Page 
Woods, defense in. (See Woods, operations in.) 

Defense areas 6 14 

Defense of obstacles 148,158-161 171,177 

Delaying action 90,135,219 110,158, 

289 

Deliberate mine fields 155 176 

Desert operations 67,95,190,138 88,118, 

148, 156 

Destruction of serviceable or reparable vehicles and 
usable supplies 23 38 

Development order; 

Company 40 56 

Regimental 37 55 

Directives for tactical training App. IV 269 

Displacements 55,114,146,169 73,143, 

168, 190 

Distribution of supplies 21,154 31,175 

Dummy mine fields 157 177 

Emplacements: 

Antitank gun, 57-mm App. I 231 

Rocket launcher App. I 231 

Equipment 3,97, 153,173 10,119, 

72. '95 

Evacuation, medical 176 197 

Expedients: 

Battlefield recover of vehicles, weapons and other 

supplies 23 38 

Destruction of serviceable or reparable vehicles and 

usable supplies 23 38 

Exploitation 23 38 

Mine 152 174 

Extra ammunition 21 31 

Fences and signs 161 181 

Fire control 9, 47, 77, 102, 110, 126, 137 20,66,97, 

123- 138. 
153, 160 

Fire plan 77,125,208 97.151. 

224 

Firing positions 6 14 

First sergeant 1 1 

Flank guard, support 27, 104, 167, 189 42, 127, 

189, 210 

Flotation of guns and vehicles App, " 249 

309 



Paragraph Page 

Fortified positron, attack 65,120,203 87,14s, 

321 

Fox holes, construction App. I 231 

General outposts, support , 207 233 

General plan of ammunition replenishment 21 31 

General training App. Ill 262 

Group, command 1,98,149,174 1,119, 

'72. '95 

Guards, mine field 161 181 

Gunners, duties 137 160 

Hasty mine fields 156 177 

Headquarters, company 1 1 

Individual protection 16, App, I 28,231 

Individual weapons 2 6 

Infantry mission in attack 315 54 

Installation ot mines, record 154, 1C2 175, 185 

Litter bearers 18 39 

Local security 13-16,144,213 25,167, 

227 

Location during combat: 

Company commander 12,49,81 24,71, 

103 

Platoon leader g8, 138, ir,o 119,155, 

172 

March outpost 31 51 

Marches: 
Approach— 

Daylight 40, 106, 186 56, 130, 

306 

Development order ....... 37 55 

Distribution of elements 38 55 

General 36,105,169 41,130, 

190 

Motor vehicles, movement 39 56 

Night 41,107,187 59,134. 

209 

General 26,146 41,168 

Route- 
Daylight 27 42 

General 26,104,184 41,137, 

20£ 

Motor movements, antimechanized protection 
during 29> '^7 5°» l3 9 

310 



Marches— Continued Ptwagraph Page 

Night 88 49 

Special conditions, under 30 51 

Medical service and evacuation: 

Aid stations 17 39 

Company aid men 18 29 

I'"or battalion antitanlf platoon 176 197 

Orders u 24 

Mess sergeant, cooks and cooks' helper 1 1 

Messengers 1,98,174. t , 1 

'95 

Mines: 

Employment in — 

Approach march lfig 190 

Attack 169 igo 

Barriers, use 159 178 

Motor movements 167 1S9 

Reorgani/,ation ifig 190 

Retrograde movements 171 193 

Route marches 167 189 

Expedients 152 174 

Helds 1 55-3 57 '7 6 

Guards 161 181 

Installation, records 162 185 

Locations 1C6 187 

Platoon 149-178 172 

Protection— 

Against hostile interference 160 179 

0£ assembly areas arid bivouac! 1G8 189 

Of command posts and administrative installa- 
tions 172 194 

Record of installations 1O3 185 

Stjuad 149 172 

Supply iM '75 

Mines and booby traps, training App. Ill a6s 

Mine platoon, antitank: 

Armament, equipment and transport 149 173 

Barriers 159 178 

Composition of— 

Command group 149 172 

Platoon 149 172 

Squad 1 49 17a 

Control 9 go 

Deliberate mine fields 155 176 

Dummy mine fields , 157 177 

311 



Mines— Continued Paragraph Page 
liuties o£— 

Command group 150 172 

Platoon leader 150 172 

Platoon sergeant ,., igo 173 

Pioneers , 150 172 

Squad leader ? 15a 17a 

Surveyor , 150 173 

Topographic draftsman 150 17s 

Truck driver 150 17a 

Employment in— 

Approach march 169 190 

Attack 169 190 

Command posts, administrative installations and 

protection 172 194 

Defense ' .168,170 189,191 

Motor movements 167 189 

Reorganization 169 igo 

Retrograde movements , , 171 193 

Route marches 167 189 

Equipment lgsj 175 

Expedients 15a 174 

Fences and signs 161 181 

Guards 161 181 

Hasty mine fields 156 177 

Location for mines 1CG 187 

Mines, records 1G2 185 

Missions 165 186 

Protection of— 

Protection against hostile interference 160 179 

Assembly areas and bivouacs 168 189 

Command posts and administrative installations. 172 194 

Road blocks 158 177 

Safeguarding friendly troops 161 181 

Supply 154 175 

Missions: 

Antitank company 5>72 is<93 

Antitank platoon no, 133 138, 148 

Antitank mine platoon 165 186 

Antitank squad 149 17a 

ilattalion antitank platoon 178,807 197,323 

Mobile: 

Platoon held 124,128 149,155 

Squad held . 14a 165 

313 



Paragraph Page 

Mountain operations 69, g6, 120 90, 1 19, 

132,306,216 148,156, 
227, 272 

Motor maintenance: 

Responsibility and duties 1,24,98,137 1,40,119, 

160 

Training in App. Ill 1:62 

Motor movements, antimechanized protection during 26, 41 

56, 202 

Movement of weapons 4,27,141 11,42, 

164 

Night attack 60, 118, 1G9, 198 77, 146, 

190,217 

Night withdrawal 87,88,133,171,217 105,157, 

192,227 

Obstacles, defense 148, 158-161 171, 177 

Occupation and organization of firing positions 6, 78, 14, 101 

111,127,143,192,311 139, 154, 
165,214, 
226 

Offensive combat. (See Attack.) 

Orders (see also Administrative orders.) 1 1, 19, 27, 37, S4, 30, 

40,47,77,110,186,191,210 42,55 
56,66,97, 
138, 153, 
212,226 

Organization and occupation of firing positions. (See 
Occupation and organization of firing positions.) 
Outposts: 

Bivouac 33-i85 53.201 

Combat 73,188,207 92,148, 

223 

General 207 223 

March 31 5* 

Pioneers 150 172 

Platoon, antitank: 
Action— 

Against hostile mechanized attack 11s 140 

In case of air attack 103 125 

When advance is halted 118 146 

Ammunition supply ai, 119, 131 31, 148, 

156 



313 



Platoon, antitank— Continued Paragraph Page 

Antiaircraft security , . . , 103, 129 125, 156 

Antimechanized defense of. assembly area 108 154 

Approach march 105-107 130 

Assembly area, antimechanized defense 108 134 

Attack, employment in iog-130 136 

Bivouacs and route marches 104 187 

Command group 98 119 

Communication , 90. lai 

Company defense order, receipt isg 149 

Composition 97 119 

Conduct of defense , 128 155 

Control, fire 102 123 

Coordination 100,101 131,133 

Covering an obstacle : 148 171 

Daylight withdrawal 134 irjg 

Defense, employment in 131-135 148 

Delaying action 135 158 

Displacement , 114 143 

Duties of command group 98 1 19 

Employment: 

Attack, in tog-120 136 

Defense, in !S1-135 148 

Night, at 118 146 

Fire control 10a 123 

Fire plan 135 151 

Held mobile 1 44, 128 149, 155 

Leader, duties , 98 119 

Local security 130 156 

Messenger, duties 98 119 

Missions and tactical employment. ........ too, 121, 125 is>i, 148, 

Night withdrawal 133 157 

Occupation of firing positions 111, 127 ljg, 154 

Occupation of initial firing position area ill 139 

Orders 110, is6 138, 153 

Protecting reorganising rifle units lit; 145 

Preparation for c!aylis;ht attack 118 146 

Pursuit 1 17 145 

Receipt of company defense order 123 149 

Reconnaissance 108,109,113,134 134,136, 

14s, 149 

Reorganization 116 145 

Retrograde movements , 133-135 157 



314 



Paragraph Page 

Route marches and bivouacs 104 127 

Sergeant, duties , 98 119 

Special operations 130, 133 146, 156 

Warning service 103 12s, 

Withdrawals 133-13!; 157 

Platoon leader, duties : 98, 150, 174 119, 172, 

'95 

IMatoon sergeant, duties 98, 149, 174 119, 173, 

'95 

t'osition areas, firing 6 14 

Positions, firing 6 14 

Primary firing positions 6 

'Prime movers, movement si, 27,29, 133 3!>42< 

141, 184, 187 50, 157, 
164, 30s, 
209 

Protecting reorganization or— 

Battalion 195 a 16 

Leading rifle units » 115 145 

Regiment !)7> lf >9 74. '90 

Protection of command post 51, 172 72, 194 

Protective measures (see also Local security). . .13^16, 103, 25, 135, 

181 199 

Pursuit .58,117,197 75,145, 

S17 

Radio operators 1 i 

Radiotelephones g 10 

Raids 6G, 120, 203 88,148, 

221 

Range card [37 160 

Rations: 

Attachment for. (Se.c Classes of supply.) 

Method of distribution. (See Classes ot supply.) 

Readiness for action t>, 179 14,198 

Rear guards 27, 104, 167, 184 43, 127, 

189,203 

Reconnaissance 10, 40, 45, r t o, 77, 109, 1 r3, 22, 56, 64, 

124,143,166,169, 7 1 ,97t 
190,191,208,209 136,143, 
M9< »65> 
187. 190. 
211, 215, 
224,225 



315 



Paragraph Page 

Reconnaissance officer i i 

Reconnaissance sergeant l t 

Records of mine installations 154, 162 175, 185 

Regiment as encircling force 58 75 

Regiment in direct pressure -. .. 58 75 

Regimental- 
Aid station , 17 29 

Antitank officer : , 8 10, 

Warning system , 13 25 

Reorganization of— 

Company ' 57 74 

Platoon 116,169,196 145,190, 

216 

Regiment 57 74 

Squad 147 170 

Replenishment of ammunition. {See Ammunition 
supply.) 

Replenishment of mines St, 154 31, 175 

Reserve battalion antitank platoon 307 223 

Reserve regiment, antitank company 61,85 78, 104 

Responsibility for supply 21,175 31,196 

Retrograde movements 86-90, 133-135 105, 157, 

171,317,219 192,227, 
229 

Rifle 3 6 

Rifle grenade 2 6 

River line operations 64,93, '20. '3^ 82, 115, 

201, 216 148, 156 

Road blocks and mines 28, 158 218, 227 

49. >77 

Rocket launchers 2 6" 

Rockets a 6 , 

Rocket teams , 2 6 

Route marches 26,27,104,167,184. 41. is, 

127, 189,- 
202 

Secondary missions 5, 178 12, 197 

Second-in-comand. (See Company, antitank, com- 
mand group.) 

Security, local 13-16,144,160,161 25,167, 

179; 181 

Sergeant: 

Communication M 1 



316 



Sergeant— Continued 


Paragraph 




Page 




'74 




■95 








1 


Signal communication. (See Communication.) 














10 




3 




10 




'3 




85 








181 


Sketches and overlays . . . . . . 


11, 162 208 


24, 


'85, 
224 


Special operations , . , 


6a— 60. Qi- 06 


81 


, HE 


120—132, 


109-206, 2t6 


148,217, 


Squad, antitank: 






Z87 


Actioti against hostile mechanized attack , . , 


"45 




1G7 




'37 




160 




'37 




[60 




'37 




160 




136 




160 




148 




171 




'45 




.0 7 








168 


Duties of— 










'37 




1O0 




'37 




160 




'37 




i6» 




'37 




160 




....142,143 




165 








164 








163 




142 




165 




'42 




165 




'47 




170 




'44 




167 




'37 




160 




....139-148 




163 








160 




. . . .App. II 




=49 




6 




'4 


Supply: 














1 






Si. 


'75 








38 








3' 




"-'75 


3'. 


196 



317 



Supply— Continued Paragraph Page 

Transportation 4 1 1 

Supply sergeant 1 1 

Surveyor , 150 172 

Tactics, tank 5,7,164 is, 18, 

186 

Tactical training directives App. IV 2G9 

Targets tor antitank gun. , 5 12 

Teams, rocket . , , a 6 

Topographical draftsman 150 172 

Towns, operations in and against 63, ga, 120 81,113, 

1 J?, zuo, 206 148, 158, 
2 18, 222 

Training, general App. Ill afia 

Training directives, tactical App. IV 269 

Transport, company 4 u 

Transportation sergeant 1 1 

Truck driver 1, 137, 550 1, 1S0, 

172 

Uncoupling position G 14 

Use of mines , 75 95 

Warning: 

Service 103,181 125,19^ 

Signals 13 £5 

System 13 a; 

Weapons, crew -served 2. (i 

Weapons, individual 2 6 

Withdrawals 86-90,133-131-, 105,157, 

171,217-219 193,327 

Woods, operations in 62,91,120 78,113, 

i32j >99j siS 148, 156, 
S17, 327 

o 



31a